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A Great Mystery. 




Sbcond Edition 


KVERE1T W. FISH, 188 Monroe Street. * 



Registered with the Librarian at Washington, D, C, Jan. 1880. 

.1 J OvA^ajtaj 


ntaitt Mm:n, 

* £&Z*9 


Whose good opinion is valued more than the acclamation of the throng, 

Is this Imperfect Token Inscribed. 


p^^lNCE this work was undertaken, with the view of pre- 
1 ^ senting a purely scientific essay on the Pyramids, its 
' plan has been materially changed. The range of study, 
necessary to develop the scientific features, has in- 
woven many religious coincidences, complicating the mys- 
tery of their origin, which it would be folly to cast aside. 
It is not a proposition to be sneered at by the most invet- 
erate theomachist, that the design, origin, and destiny of 
the Great Pyramid are theistic, although reasonably subject to negative 
criticism. Nor, though fashionable with most modern writers of materialis- 
tic views, does it comport with good sense and justice to underrate coinci- 
dences, which, as evidences, are opposed to our own views. But they should 
rather be weighed, value for value, with physical testimony; for the day 
has not yet come when we can either dogmatically negate the direct gov- 
ernment of a spiritual essence, or demolish with rare mepris the intel" 
lectual giants, whose minds, (as broad and untrammeled as our own), have 
found "reason" in a divinity, and "common sense" in a revelation. 

When the bases fall from the physical deductions of Kepler, Bacon, 
Newton, Napier, and an array of minds breaking from the shackles of 
past schools of thought to inaugurate new systems, but still beholding a 
God in the universe, then we may conclude that our views of theism and* 
cosmogony are alone up to the level of philosophy, and consign theirs to 

Prof. Piazzi Smyth may be too sanguine and over-positive in the ap- 
plication of Siriadic symbolisms; but the Scotchman's ken f or theosophic 
mystery is a better guide to truth than the flippant pen of Jas. Bonwick, 
F. R. G. S. (London), in whose recent work there is a radical excision of 
such interpretations. However difficult of belief, a justly balanced mind 
will decide— not upon the capacity of the popular will for unbelief— but up- 
on the intrinsic value of the evidences, in minds in which there is not a 
highly developed antagonism. Thus we ask the reader, even the most in- 
veterate iconoclast, to read and study— under the influence of the broad 

principles of Baconian Philosophy. 
Chicago, III., U. S. A., 

Note to second edition. 

A few of our stalwart religious journals, including the Quarterly 
"Baptist Review," of Cincinnati, while noting the historical and scien- 
tific merits of the book, do not fully recognize the "Mystery" in the 
Pyramid. In the calm judgment of the student, unafflicted with enthu- 
siasm, we think the following moderate statements fulfill the conditions 
of a "mystery:" 

1. No traditional or historic record is so ancient but that the Pyramid 
was then a "wonder of the world." Its incomparable size and its char- 
acter as a reservoir of human knowledge, makes this forgetfulness the 
more mysterious. 

:. Its freedom from all hieratic literature, with the exception of a 
single, non-graven, structural hieroglyph over the entrance. 

3. lis scientific ... ,/es, though still fragmentary and obscure, 
are too profound for any known era of mental development. 

4. Its standard of weights and measures is the probable origin of 
the "sacred cubit," the uncia, pound, polticis, Cwt., chauldron, acre, 
yard, Oriental coins, the American gold and silver pieces— all based on 
a decimal scale. While the French Metrio Standard is based on a curved 
and incommensurable line, the Pyramid system has the earth's axis of 
revolution for its standard. 

In justice to a large body of Pyramid students who have been longer in the 
field than the writer, we caution the reader against giving too much weight to 
our opinion where it conflicts with others. The object of the work is to 
bring a grand subject before the masses, rather than discuss doubtful topics. 

The orthography of Anglicized Egyptian words is exceedingly unsettled. 
For instance, the word Ghizeh may be spelled in twenty different ways 

There will shortly appear more complete works upon Pyramid symbols, and 
hence we have left a more elaborate analysis to those who are more compe- 


No problem of the present age so fully deserves the 
title— "A GREAT MYSTERY," as that which is 
involved in the origin and interpretation of the Great 
Pyramid and its lesser companions. They all, doubtless, 
belong to one epoch and to one race of invaders, though 
probably far apart in significance and destiny. They are, 
and ever have been, as profound a mystery to the native 
Egyptians* as to us, and even the discover f the key to 
the hieroglyphs, so profusely traced over the innumerable 
monuments of Egypt, throws no light on this question. 
The Great Pyramid alone, amid the graven structures, is 
free from the stone literature. f 

Like the city of Damascus, this stupendous monument 
has witnessed the rise, zenith and decay of empires whose 
armies have trodden the known world. But unlike the 
most aged of cities, whose obscurity was its safety, the 
Great Pyramid has been pre-eminent among its fellows in 
all ages — ever sleeping, yet unspeakably grand in the 
intensity of its slumber! — its waking, perchance, an in- 
stant conflict with the progressive]; thought of four thou- 
sand years. 

It is without letter or language to speak in a' tongue 
living or dead. It was a patriarch when literature was 
born. Its builder is a shadow in history, its birthday a bat- 

*In all history they have been a subject for discussion -having- been 
looked upon with cabalistic awe back to the very date of their erection. 

+Since the appearance of the first edition we are better able to demon- 
si rate the surmised forgery of the inscription seen by Herodotus, as well 
as the menial character of his translator. The architectural hieroglyph 
discovered in preparing- the previous edition, is wrought in the masonry, 
and not graven. (Fig. 49.) 

^Especially in mathematics and astronomy. Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, 
Copernicus/Galileo, Newton, bound a progressive development. 



tie-ground 6000 years in extent. Its object is the giddy 
whim of some fifty different historians, whose interpreta- 
tions vary with the weathercock. It was grey with the 
noons and nights of at least 600 years when the Penta- 
teuch was written; it was as ancient to Moses as the Nor- 
man Conquest of England is to D'Israeli to-day. Undis- 
turbed by earthquake, it will continue the monarch of mon- 
uments when the modern obelisk has wasted away, forget- 
ting its own history, and trodden by the feet of a new 

Modern science is struggling with a new element in this 
Pyramid. In dumb silence, it yet speaks of a wisdom so 
profound that the humbled disciples of Newton and Her- 
schelshrink from it in surprise and wonder. 

Very recently the freshly turned sod of Assyrian mounds 
gave us the most ancient landmarks of the human family, 
still leaving the great kingdoms of Iran and Bactria, to 
the northeast, involved in tradition; but in these later days 
the Coptic races in JEgypta, (either as subject or dominant 
people), throw a shadow athwart the history of the ancient 
world which involves all chronology and science in a tan- 
gled maze. Its dates, dynasties, fragments of history, tradi- 
tions and hieroglyphics are all too snarled and discordant 
to throw certain light on the monuments from which its an- 
nals are derived. 

This monument is peculiar. It strikes the architect 
as a structure built to defy the wrath of storms the wear of 
ages, and the hunger of fire. Nor is it strange that the 
student, who has soberly worked his way through Zend 
philosophy, Trojan relics, or the earliest twilight of Attic 
civilization, should rise into a higher enthusiasm when 


viewing this "Stone Age, " representing the moat pro- 
found triumphs of human thought. 

It was a new idea to the world, and its design is not yet 
delivered from the womb of stone, though modern doctors 
themselves appear in travail. 

It is strange in all things. 

It becomes in the earliest list the fh*fc and foremost 
of the seven wonders. 

Whatever it may have cost to build, to destroy it would 
absorb the wealth of nations. 

It is larger than any building or stt'tu'tuie ever plant- 
ted on earth's bosom. It is a higher pinnacle, if such pro- 
portions can be called a pinnacle, than the slender sum- 
mit of the proudest temple ever built. 

Its workmanship, in the interior passages, is the fin- 
est ever seen; yet amid the coarsest and rudest forms. A 
fine scroll and joint on some white temple front excites no 
wonder, but a joint of microscopic fineness between two 
mighty, granitic rocks, in a dark and narrow passage, amid 
huge forms of primitive material, is past all reason — be- 
yond comprehension. 

The Great Pyramid is different from those imitations 
built soon after, even in its mysterious aspects. For while 
their builders followed the pattern, in shape and proxi- 
jrate size — yet, not knowing all the secrets of the over- 
shadowing pile, they fill no channel of advanced sym- 

But more mysterious than its exterior majesty, or interior 
symbolisms, is the fact — fairly established — that as soon 
as it was completed it was sealed up by a massive coating 
of limestone so that no man penetrated its interior for 
thousands of years — not until man's cupidity led him to 



force an entrance by chisel, fire, and vinegar, in - earch for 
hidden treasures. 

To day this mighty child of antiquity is ragged and 
battered. Its beautiful casing has built more modern 
palaces, and its interior is robbed of much of its beauty and 
iinish. The outside has been despoiled by the Arab — but 
the inside by the civilized barbarians who whack at every 
relic of the past with a tourist's hammer. But while they 
may hack away its polished walls and batter down the 
exquisite coffer in the King's Chamber, there is one source 
of satisfaction — they cannot, in ages, sensibly reduce its 
immense mass. 


In this critical day, people of broad views and general 
intelligence are not convinced, even of an exalted truth, by 
a single train of evidences. It is only by the gradual 
modifications of the channels of thought that propositions 
in social, moral or aesthetic life acquire a general ac- 

The purpose of this little work is to present the ques- 
tion in such a manner that the mind may grasp the facts 
and judge them as we judge general history, without 
warp or bias. Many deductions seem unphilosophical to 
the writer, yet it is no more than fair to give them in 
their strongest light, lest we fail to do justice to those 
whose studies have given them a right to full hearing. 

A great objection to the mathematical and chronologi- 
cal testimony of the Pyramid, as evidence, is, that any 
given structure, having proportions, halls, chambers, and 
angles, may be so manipulated as to yield equally wonder- 
ful results. In this way a member of the British Sci- 
entific Association reviewed Prof. Piazzi Smyth's work on 
the Pyramid, ridiculing the propositions and deductions 
of the learned astronomer. Calling for the tri-cornered hat 
of an auditor, he proceeded to measure it — and to the 

*It was doubtless the spirit in which the Pyramid labors of Prof. Smyth 
were received that led to his separation from the Royal Society, even if it 
were not the direct cause. However, his withdrawal, referred to on the 
next page, was not due solely to resentment at this indiscreet exhibition be- 
fore a body of scientists. 


convincing of a more than human agency concerned in the 
erection. As observed, these may be coincidences, but, if 
so. they are the most remarkable that an elastic mind can 

These propositions may not embrace all the "curios- 
ities" attached to our wonderful subject. For taken in 
connection with the unreasonable snarl and tangle in its 
history; the unexplainable sealing from human sight of its 
interior; the quite well known views of Egypt's ancient as- 
tronomers; the before-mentioned absence of the hieroglyph- 
ics; the magnitude of its dimensions and the partial fail- 
ure of the "Tomb theory " — and the Pyramid of Gizeh 
stands out upon the frontier of the desert as the most 
wonderful Mystery of the age, and the most sublime land- 
mark in the history of man. 



sport of the society, deduced therefrom some exact math- 
ematical data. 

To the credit of the Professor be it said, he indignantly 
withdrew from membership in the body. For such was 
not the place, nor hour, to treat flippantly and with sneer 
a great problem which has since drawn into its discussion 
the best minds of the scientific world ; and which affects 
the entire field of intellectual and religious development 
in a startling degree. 

It may be said of this member, that his sarcasm was 
lost on the world when it was found that his figures on the 
"hat" had been prepared before hand, and his deductions 
"cut and dried." The reader will recognize, of course, that 
any one may construct a building, or plan a hat, with 
dimensions to fit any given set of past dates or arithnietr 
ical proportions. But the question of pyrainidical evidence 
goes deeper than this. It is required : 

1st. That the structure presents data of which the 
"artist" is quite ignorant, or which are so advanced beyond 
his own age as to be entirely incomprehensible to his 
fellow-beings — e. g. : The rotundity of the earth, distance 
of the planets, and various other cosmical measures, mer- 
idians, etc. 

A just estimation of the past not only pronounces the 
Egyptians ignorant of these things, — Ignorance crasse — 
but every people on earth were thus ignorant; and farther, 
such relative science as there was, taught a cosmogony 
directly the reverse of Pyramid science.* 

2d. The structure must not only give past data, but it 
must either by design or "coincidence" represent future 
events. These coincidental or prophetic symbols must 

*The Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy represent the 
leading- ideas of advanced thought for a thousand years B. C. Before 
this the Egyptians were even unable to establish a cycle. 



refer only to those events which modify universal history. 
In the Pyramid we have this illustrated in the founding of 
the Hebrew nation, whose history and theocratic nature 
have modified every subsequent political power on earth. 
The Exodus, and the Birth of Christ, are also among the 

3d. The structure must not only give recognition to 
mathematical propositions, but it must attempt the solu- 
tion of profound problems which have harassed the student 
for ages. 

Whether the above conditions are fairly credited to the 
Pyramid will remain an open question, until time reveals 
its purposes. 

As a test, however, of the position taken by the member 
of the British Association, we present the student with the 
figure on page 154. (Figure 83.) It is the plan of a 
structure. It is required that from its dimensions, or the 
manipulation of dimensions by indicated factors, a list of 
chronological or mathematical data is to be deduced, relat- 
ing to any science or special line of history. Nor is it 
required that future events be figured out ! With the 
view of assisting the student, a certain dimension has been 
made to represent, even to the one ten-thousandth of an 
inch, an important era in history. This is the period in 
Roman History from the founding of the city to the death 
of Julius Caesar. 

The only requirements w^uld be, (a), That the events, 
etc., shall be of primary importance in the line of history 
or science represented; and (b), that coincidences shall 
coincide to .01 of a unit. Also, (c), that no factor shall 
be used that is not related either to the history or to the 

Few readers wUi realize the injustice done to the School 


who are translating the symbolism of the Pyramid, in this 
proposition. For the most remarkable coincidences of the 
Great Monument are not riddles to be solved by "midnight 
oil," or "child-birth pain," but are startling in their dis- 
tinctness. It is quite possible that they are coincidences 
only ; it is quite possible they are not ! At all events 
they are readily discovered. 

For a further development of the nature of the evidence, 
let us wander from the cold, abstract study of stone to 
a warmer illustration, which, while less logical from its 
coloring, appeals more directly to the common-sense: 

A teacher in Ancient History, to divide off the ages 
into convenient epochs, made use of certain Biblical dates. 
Not that all of them were absolute, but that they were 
relatively convenient. 

Suppose that such a teacher were to travel in a strange 
land, and receive hospitality at the hands of some recluse 
or iconoclast, the threshold of whose gate has never before 
been passed by man. He enters a broad avenue. He finds 
before him a pathway lined with rare flowers, graceful fol- 
iage and curious exotics. The Old Man leads the trav- 
eler towards the distant mansion. Of a sudden he notices 
unique stakes set in the ground, and on them, painted fig- 
ures.* Little attention is paid to this at first. But soon a 
smile appears on the teacher's face, as he recognizes an 
old friend on one of these stakes — number 2349, (supposed 
date of the Flood — close of the first epoch in his history 
cla^s). No other idea is entertained, however, than that 
these figures are some common place plan of a half-crazed 
fossil of a gardener. But the stranger's eyes open wider, 
when, about a hundred feet farther on, he meets another 
old friend in the number 2247 ; (given by some as the 

♦Figures are given as a stranger would have no occasion to apply a meas- 
uring line to these divisions of the garden. 



date of the "Dispersion"). Again the beauty of the grounds 
attracts his attention, when stranger things appear. First 
a familiar number in small figures, 1729, which is followed 
closely by another in bold characters, 1491. (Date of the 
"Exodus," and formation of the Hebrew nation). "Surely," 
he soliloquized, "this old man's reputation belies him. 
There is some significance in all this, especially if some 
peculiar change in the garden appear about 1500 feet 
further on, symbolizing the Christian era." Who can 
judge of the surprise and wonder when at just such a dis- 
tance the pathway abruptly opened upon a most magnifi- 
cent fountain! An 1 a 1\jw hundred feet beyond, another 
familiar date appears on a "time post" — (the date of the 
Hegira of Mahomet), and the gate of the castle door is 
reached some 1881 feet from the fountain. But the won- 
der does not cease here. All through that castle — every 
where — are numbers and measures which the wanderer 
had made familiar to his class ! In utter amazement, he 
turns to his rough, weather-beaten guide, and asks him 
whence all this intricate knowledge of the past and proph- 
ecy of the future? The old man turns to his questioner, 
and with eyes burning with mysterious fire, replies, "Stran- 
ger, let it still remain, as it has been, a mystery! When 
the time comes thou shalt know." The traveler answers — 
" It is no mystery — it is all a coincidence. " 

We will strip this scene of its fancy, its flowers, its 
dreamery, and we have the cold facts of that mighty struc- 
ture whose study is the mystery of the age ! Let us enter 
the poi tal, behold the testimony upon which to answer the 
question — Was it built as a history in rock — with wisdom 
symbolized in every feature? — or the chance creation of 
some ancient king whose bones have disappeared from 
their grand mausoleum? 


The early history of the most ancient of kingdoms 
would naturally be involved in doubt and uncertainty. 
No 'satisfactory chronology has been established from the 
traditions or records of Egypt. If this short analysis is 
anything but clear, it will share the common lot of its 
honest companions in obscurity. 

Egypt occupies the northeastern corner of Africa. It 
is the valley of the Nile, and nothing more. The same 
slow fever which has dried up Petrea and hidden Edom 
with a leprosy of sand, has also crossed the Red Sea and 
narrowed, somewhat, the fertile borders of Egypt. On 
the west it is partially protected from the encroaching 
desert by the Libyan mountains. Its remarkable fertility 
is annually reinforced by the phenomenal inundations of 
the River Nile, which rose and fell in the days of Menes 
as in the times of the Khedive'. 

The investigation of the settlement of Egypt properly 
belongs to our subject. It cannot, however, be fairly 
treated in small compass. In full recognition of the testi- 
mony of her one historian, our own opinion, if it be of 
value, inclines to a short chronology.* 

From the earliest period Egypt was divided artificially 
into three sections of somewhat uncertain boundary. The 
northern, including the fertile delta, was known as the 
Bahara. (Map on page 151.) Within it at different times 
were several prominent cities, and independent kingdoms. 
A powerful priesthood usually furnished the kings. Mem- 

♦Every traditional development points to an origin from some great 
dispersion of connate races and dialects, and especially to an Indie paral- 
lelism—in the Turanian direction, however. Ejrypt is not older than 
India. Max Midler's estimate of Vedic chronology is certainly moderate : 
Ohantfas period, (most ancient), 1200 B.C. ; Mantra period, 1000; Bramana 
period, 800; Sutra period, 000-200. ["Ancient Sanskrit Literature."] 




phis, in ancient times, and Alexandria in more modern, 
have been the most important. Heracleopolis was also 
the seat of a kingdom. Xois, in the delta, a city of a 
powerful priesthood, for several dynasties maintained an 
independent government. The southern section is called 
the "Said," the "Thebais," or "Thebaid," a district once 
having Thebes for its populous capital. The Greek name 
of Thebes was Diospolis, and her kings are frequently 
called Diospolitan. Between Said and Bahara was the 
region of Vostani. The earliest kingdom in Egypt was 
that of "This," in the southern portion, which antedated 
Thebes. Its kings were known as Thinites. The Ele- 
phantine kings were powerful at an early age. 

The principal sources of our information regarding the 
history of this ancient territory are hieroglyphics, or stone 
pictures on the monuments, which unfortunately are not 
sufficiently preserved to give correct and harmonious rec- 
ords. Herodotus visited Egypt about the 5th century B. 
C. (484), and wrote a history of the country. The Egyp- 
tian priests gave him some information, but he being un- 
able to translate the hieroglyphics to any great extent, — 
and his record being largely mythical, it is not credible 
in all its statements. The Bible also gives many interest 
ing notes, all of which have been corroborated by the- 
Egyptian records. An exceedingly valuable work was 
produced in the 3d century B. C, by Manetho, high- 
priest of Heliopolis, giving the names of 30 dynasties of 
kings, from the founder of Thebes to the times of Darius 
II. But unfortunately the history of Manetho has been 
lost, and we only have distorted portions in the works of 
subsequent writers.* 

Among these are Eratosthenes, (276 B.C.); Julius Afri- 

*.Manetho is not authority in the chronology of Egypt, on disputed 
points. He dates back 29,000 years— 13,900 for "The Cods." We krnnv, 
however, that he is in error in quite modern dates as the reign of Afrt 
canus, 26th dynasty,) so frequently as to destroy credibility in the more 



eanus, (300 B.C.); Diodorus, (GO B.C.); Strabo, (A.D.), 
and Syncellus, who lived A. D. 800. An almost illegible 
Tablet is preserved at Turin, on which was an astronom- 
ical chronology. Its mutilation is a matter of regret. 
On the temple at Abydos, or "This," there were lists of 
kings which aided the historian. 

The Bible records refer often to events in Egyptian 
history, and with a correctness unparalleled among other 
ancient writings, where love of the mythical poorly com- 
pares with the plain chronicles of the Hebrews. But the 
Bible record only throAvs a solitary gleam into Egypt as 
early as 1900 B. C, (Abraham's visit). Again, while Dr. 
Usher's date of the Flood, (short chronology,) is 2342 
B. C, the Samaritan and Alexandrian (Septuagint), ver- 
sions place it at least 1300 years earlier. The Rawlinsons, 
radical defenders of Biblical history, incline to a liberal 
construction of its chronology, within the latter limit. 


The hieroglyphs were a system of singular and rude 
picture writings, on tomb, monument and scroll. They 
remained untranslated until the discovery, in 1799, of the 
celebrated Rosetta Stone. This was a tablet on which 
was engraved a trilingual key to the symbols. They were 
translated into the Greek, and also the enchorial or dem- 
otic (common) alphabets. Although engraven B. C. 200, 
the indifference of the brilliant Schools at Alexandria 
covered the grand old mother of alphabets with oblivion, 
and even this solitary key was upturned by the foreign 
soldier's pick, during Napoleon's invasion of Egypt. 

These earliest types of written language resembled the 
Chinese word representation, in syllabicism, though not in 
morphology. Certain natural or artificial forms became 
associated with relative or cognate ideas, and were adopted 
as a sign to represent the indicative word or syllable. 

- ■ 



The next tcp w s t!;c icpresentation of a s und instead 
of a syllable, although the word and syllable forms were 
never entirely supplanted. 

Thus, Osiris, a demi-god, was hieroglyph ed with two 
syllabic characters, Os and Iri, (Fig. 2). On the other hand 

JLabaris, a king of This, had both syl- 
labic and sound characters, L, A, O, 
B, Ra, (Fig. 3.). 
-^^>» Another modification followed th? 

Fig. 2. development of sound characters. 

It was the simplification of the character it- 
self. Owing to the extreme veneration of the 
Egyptians for their "sacred writing," this im- 
provement is scarcely recognized in the Nile 
Valley. Hieroglyphs formed after the Advent much re- 
sembled those of the early ages of Karnac and Luxor. 
But the neighboring nations, Hebrews, Greeks, Syro-Phce- 
nicians, and the Edomites, probably through the necessi- 
ties of commerce, profited by the picture "ideation," and 
developed alphabets.* The fact is, that European litera- 
ture is the offspring of the Egyptian monuments. Fig. 5 
gives a scheme for the origin of the Hebrew characters, 
and Fig. 4 one for the Greek, through Phoenicia. The 
engravings closely follow Sharpe. The transformation 
into Hebrew characters must have been very ancient or it 
may have been through Edom's civilization. Of course 
it will be understood that Egypt antedates Fdom at least 
a thousand years. 

Through Egypt came f cience, philosophy, and even liter- 

*Accoi'ding to Sir Isaac Newton letters originated, not in Phoenicia, but 
in Edom, among* the Troglodytes, or dwellers in the magnificent cave- or 
cliff-palaces of Petrea. Doubtless the descendants of Cush and Ham in 
Egypt, and of Esau in Edom both drew their earliest "ideations" from a 
c; in m on source, many centuries before Assy ria had a literature. Edom 
offered incense to art, and faded ; Egypt changed not, and her history 
dwells eternally in her monuments. 




















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ature to Europe. While one age ga\e 
form to sound, the glorious Alexandri- 
- an epoch gave life and form to thought, 
and invention to science. One beautiful 
pillar is wanting in the grand vestibule 
of Egypt's history — Art! 
**' 4 charSer8. Greek Buthad Egypt developed art, or had 
the aesthetic supplanted the indestruc- 
tible, then those heavy, sombre, fadeless records, in tomb 
and temple, pyramid and obelisk, would have crumbled on 
papyrus rolls, or been burned out by the torch of despot 
and fanatic — buried in common with the history of Iran 
and Edom. There is a mystery in the peculiar nature of 
Coptic development. 


From a careful study of the traditions of Egypt and 
other nations, during the 1000 years preceding the ear- 



liest reliable dates, it is barely 
possible to locate a few prom- 
inent events. But even then 
the confirmation of the geologi- 
cal evidence, soon referred to, is 
necessary to make these proxi- 
mate dates at all trustworthy. It 
is during this uncertain epoch 
that the Great Pyramid was 

The era of the Rise of Thebes 
to the rank of a powerful city 
is an important landmark. This 
especially turns upon the fall of 
the kingdom of the city of This, 
(or Abydos), when the throne 
of Upper Egypt was removed 
to the new and populous city of 
Thebes. Equally significant of 
the rise of the new power was 
the Theban conquest of Mem- 
phis, by Menes. This event, 
as well as the establishment of 
the Sun-god Amun-Ra, (Fig. 6), 
and the founding of the memor- 
ial temples of Karnak and Lux- 
or, peer indistinctly through the 
misty history of this era. 

Menes was possibly a myth- 
ical person. He was undoubt- 
edly the same as the Menu of 
the Hindus, and the Minos of 
the Greeks.* It is very remark- 
able that the tradition of the 
great Turanian, Arian, and the 














/ \ 












Fig. 5. Origin of Hebrew letters. 

*And also the Manes of the Lydians. 


Hamitic races, great branches of the common origin 
of the human family, should thus converge to one common 
head, a mighty conqueror — and a wise statesman. 

Menes was supposed, by Herodotus,to have ruled over 
Egypt 2000 B. C; but his history is mixed with Hellenic 
traditions, and many such statements must be taken with 
due allowance. It is reasonably certain that Abraham 
migrated to Egypt about 1900 B. C, at which time Thebes 
was past her early glory, having been at least once con- 
quered by Memphis. It is generally admitted that Menes 
founded Thebes. 

An analysis of the dynasties preceding that during which 
Abraham appeared at Memphis, has resulted in a few 
chronologists placing the founding of Thebes at 1000 
years before that event, or 2900 B.C. This conclusion is 
fortified by a careful examination of the alluvial deposits 
of the River Nile, by its never failing annual overflow. 

Fig. 6. Amun-Ra, the Sun-God. 

We think this resource for historical research has been 
slighted by Egyptologists, although the French Academ- 
icians did much to develop the subject. 

It has been shown that the addition to the soil every 
one hundred years amounts to nearly five inches.* Over 

♦According to certain other explorations it was put at from 3 to 4 inches 
but it was in a location where the body of overflow was less than at Kar* 
oac and Luxor. 


A grea* mystery. 

the foundation platforms of the most ancient Theban 
temples there is a deposit of over nineteen feet. By these 
centennial strata it is estimated that the city was founded 
or greatly enlarged from 2800 to 3000 B. C. The enlarge- 
ment can be justly assigned to the close of the Thinite 
dynasties^ and consolidation of Egypt under Menes. The 
agreement of different alluvial examinations, with each 
other and with certain other evidences, gives great proba- 
bility to our deductions ; and it is hoped they will receive 
farther examination. 

Manetho, though not wholly at variance, does not fully 
warrant these conclusions. Unfortunately we get his his- 
tory percolated through half-a-dozen later writers. Thus, 
he says Menes reigned at "This," over a kingdom stretch- 
ing from Lycopolis unto Tentyra, building the city of 
Thebes during his reign ; and seventeen Thinite kings 
followed before the removal of the throne to Thebes. Then 
we have from 500 to 700 years of unbroken reigns record- 
ed by the monuments. 

The Greek student will not fail to discover Grecian foot- 
prints in this statement. It might make the record of less 
weight to remind the reader that Attic civilization dawned 
some twenty-five hundred years after the times of Menes. 


The above record of the reign of 17 Thinite kings, if 
correct, added to the 600 years of Theban supremacy, 
brings us to a period when the latter kingdom succumbed 
to Memphis. And this conquest of Thebes was by a for- 
eign invader, whose first achievement was to win, by force 
or strategy, the throne of Memphis. His name was Che- 
ops, (Fig. 7), and he doubtless built the Great Pyramid of 
Ghizeh. Manetho has no dynasty which includes Cheops, 
(4th dynasty), and ascribes the Great Pyramid to Suphis, 




of the 6th. At the time of this supremacy of Memphis, 
(4th) Manetho puts in king Timaus, thus: "We had for- 
merly a king, Timaus. In his time it came to pass, I know 
not how, that the Deity was displeased with us, and there 
came up from the East, in a strange manner, men of an 
ignoble race, who had the confidence to invade our country 
and easily subdue it by their power, without a battle. And 
when they had our rulers in their hands, they demolished 
the temples of the Gods." 

Note the italics! 
The Egyptian priest 
never admitted a di- 
rect conquest. We 
have two indications 
in this expression : 
That the conquest 
Fig. 8. sen- was a very strange 

Suphis, Noum -, ,, . 

Chofo, Che- one, and that the 

phren. Broth- , • -rp, .. 

er of Cheops, native Egyptians 
were not the "Yoingees," soon referred to, for the latter 
were but recently driven from home. However, the Hindu 
race may have been the invaders. 

Here is a race that conquers by intelligence. The 
Egyptian priest, Manetho, who through hatred, never men- 
tions Cheop's name, places the invasion at the time noted 
for the pyramid builders, and also for the conquest of the 
city of Thebes. We will note that Cheop's name is o nit- 
ted, and also the name of the king of the "ignoble race." 
This singular conquest is corroborated by a closely par- 
allel Hindoo tradition, to which reference will again be 
made. Dr. Seiss, in the "Miracle in Stone," and others, 
consider Timaus as the Chemmis of Diodorus, the Che- 
ops of Herodotus ? Chufu or Shofo of the monuments. 

Fig. 7. Cheops, Suphis, 
Chemmis, or chofo. 
Sometimes Shafre. 


Then of course he was himself the Suphis of Manetho, — a 
not very plausible proposition, as two or three dynasties 
intervened, according to the chronicler of both. The tes- 
timony does not show that Cheops or Suphis ever was con- 
quered. On the other hand he was a mighty conqueror 
himself; he and his successor, Sensuphis, or Chephren, 
having spread their kingdom over all Egypt and Sinaitic 
Arabia. Suphis reigned 63 years, and is himself repre- 
sented as destroying the temples and the Gods. Cheops 
is always spoken of as alien to Coptic interests. Yet Mr. 
Bonwick says he was an Egyptian, and of an Egyptian 
dynasty, apparently a very bold assertion. Manetho avoids 
the mention of his name, and the Egyptian priests so hated 
him that they mentioned his name in scorn, and ascribed 
the building of the Pyramid to one of his shepherds, as 
in derision.* Again, after Timaus, Manetho leaves an un- 
satisfactory record from the 3d or 4th dynasty till the 6th. 
We can see in Timaus the last of the 3d dynasty of priestly 
kings, and in Cheops, an invader and the first of the Hyc- 
sos. Herodotus states: "(128). The Egyptians so detest 
the memory of these [the two first — Cheops and Cephren] 
that they do not much like even to mention their names, 
hence they commonly call the pyramids [the Great and 
the 2d] after Phil tion [or Philitis] a shepherd, who at 
that time fed his flocks about the place. " 

Now follow this up with what Manetho says of the con- 
querors of Timaus: — 

"All this invading nation was styled Hycsos, that is 'Shep- 
herd Kings;' for the first syllable, 'Hyc' in sacred dialect 
denotes a king; and 'sos' signifies a shepherd, but this on- 
ly according to the vulgar tongue. And of these is com- 
pounded the term Hycsos; some say they were Arabians," 

*And yet the Egyptians were none of them Shepherds — evidence that 
Cheops was not an Egyptian. 


This certainly implies that both the Kings and their 
people were the shepherds and alien. Important testi- 
mony is added in the words of Herodotus which should 
settle the matter, notwithstanding Kenrick* does not so 
understand it. The Egyptians "detested" them. Whom? 
Why, the shepherd Hycs or kings. The Egyptians were 
not shepherds. They hated the avocation. They would 
not wear woolen cloth; nor renounce their traditional 
hatred of those who would. All these expressions of dis- 
like attach not to "vulgar" people alone, but to kings and 
princes. It applied to Cheops and Cephren, and as will 
be seen continued for 500 years or more. Then came a 
violent change, (pp. 34-35), a new "Pharaoh" came, and as 
we get down to B.C. 1*700-1500 we hear of Joseph and 
the Hebrews]-. But we are anticipating. Cheops we sup- 
pose to have reigned from 2100 to 2200 B.~C. As before 
stated he was followed by his brother, Cephren, of Her- 
odotus and Diodorus; Suphis II or Sensuphis, ("Sen" 
meaning brother), of Manetho; the Non-Shofo of Egyp- 
tologists. Hieroglyph in Fig. 8. He was followed by 
Mykera, (Mencheres). 

The foreigners were driven out of the Nile valley, and 
either during or immediately after their supremacy there 
appeared at Thebes a line of priests or pontiff-kings, con- 
temporaneous to this line of Memphites whom we suppose 

7tOl^£V05 &l\lTlGOVO€ . [Herodotus' Egypt. §128.] "Manetho, the 
priest of Sebennytus, who wrote a history of Egypt in the reign of Ptol- 
omy Philadelphia, B.C. 268, relates an invasion of Egypt by a people 
whom he calls Hyksos, 'shepherds-kings,' Jos. c. Apion 1. 14. \ who, coming 
from the east reduced the natives to slavery, burnt their cities, and razed 
their temples. . . Of this very remarkable series of events there is no 
i race in Herodotus, unless we suppose that the shepherd Philition repre- 
sents this dynasty of shepherd kings, and the sufferings of Egypt under 
Cheops and Chephren, who closed the temples and compelled the people 
to labor at the erection of the Pyramids, were really inflicted by the for- 
eign invaders," — by which, in the mind of Kenrick, from whose note on 
the text this is taken, is understood Philitis, a transcendental con- 
querorl Our opinion will appear under "The History of the Pyramid." 
tNeither Abraham nor Israel's children would have gone into Egypt 
had other than a kindred race of shepherds ruled in the Valley, 



to have been the shepherd kings: Osirtesen I, (Fig. 9), 
ascended the Theban throne, and it is said, erected those 
older and grander buildings which now mark the ruins of 
his capital. This seems unreasonable, however, when we 
reflect that Thebes had been a mighty city nearly ten cen- 
turies before, and at least 500 years before the silence of 
the wilderness was broken by the builders of Babylon ! 

Fig. 9. Osirt- sen I. Title over first Fig. 10. Mesphra-Thothmosis. Char- 
oval is "Sot-Nont," or King over Upper acters read, in second oval, Mes-f anvil) 
and Lower Egypt. Title over the sec- [pb]Ra-Thoth (character under fowl)-M 
ond is ''Sera," Son of the Sun. The first S-S. Comparison with Figs. 1 and 5 will 
oval reads, "Ho-ke-ra," Ra being read assist translation, 
last. Second oval reads O-S-R-T-S-N. 

Wilkinson puts the reign of Osirtesen at about the time 
of Joseph's arrival at Memphis, or 1706, B. C, which we 
are compelled to regard as an error. Sharpe places Osir- 
tesen about 1750 also, but Joseph about 200 years later, 
under Mesphra-Thothmosis, (Fig. 10), who expelled the 
shepherd kings. 

Thebes, before the time of Osirtesen, had extended her 
conquests from beyond Libya to the Indus, had gone into 
decline, been conquered by Memphis, and was now rising 
into new glory, possibly under the shadow and yoke of 
Memphis. It is quite probable that Osirtesen did extend 



Karnak, rebuild Luxor, and restore the gods and shrines 
overthrown by the earlier conqueror of Timaus and of 


The immediate predecessor of Osirtesen I seems to have 
been Amunmai Thori, (Fig. ll),who is supposed to have 
resisted or conquered Memphis. The successors of Osir- 
tesen, of whom little is known, appear as Noubkouri, or 
Amunmai Thori II (Fig 12), Meshophra, or Osirtesen II 




Fig. 12. Amunmai Thori 11, or 

Fig. U. Amunmai 'ihori. Characters in 
second oval A-M-N-M-T-R. Also called A. 
Ch(k)ori, '"Conqueror beloved by Aniun." 

(Fig 13), Meskora,or Osirtesen III (14), Queen Scemiophra 
(Fig 15). These names do not appear at all in the Mem- 
aon list at Thebes, but do appear on the Abydos tablet. 
As Abydos had been a powerful kingdom centuries before, 
it does not add much to the clearness of the record. It 
was during these reigns that Abraham appeared in lower 
Egypt, at Memphis, (1900 B. C). 

By some writers, the names just given as rulers of all 
Egypt are represented as merely High Priests. Either 
contemporaneously, or following these kings of equivocal 
power, Memphis was said to be again invaded by a for- 
eign race, who held all Egypt under tribute. According 
to Manetho, they were Phoenicians, also called Hyksos 
or shepherd kings. There were six of them, Salatis, Beon, 


Apachnas, Apophis, Janias, and Asseth, and they were 
driven out by Chebros-Amosis,* (Fig. 16), the successor 
of Queen Scemiophra! Then we are led to believe the 
reigns of Cheops, Kephren,f and Mykera, were followed 
consecutively by the Salatian dynasty, and that the race 
of invaders was driven out, or allowed to depart, afte r 
being defeated in battle, or reduced to slavery, some 500 
years after Cheops. This comes near the Exodus. 

There are many Indie traditions of the occupation of 
Egypt by migratory tribes. J But while they rest on un- 
certain foundations at best, they are more intimately con- 
nected with the earliest history of a race whose footprints 
are seen from Petrea to Finland, from Iberia to Ireland, 
and from Ceylon to Peru and Mexico. In fact, a race of 

Bonwick indulges in Indie traditions which open with 
the conquest and close with expulsion — in time, concur- 

*Here is the difficulty in the history of the Pyramid epoch. The state- 
ment above is derived from the opinions of Egyptologists like Sharpe, be- 
ing substantially derived from Manetho. Now, if the two epochs of 
foreign kings, viz.: The race which conquered Timaus and this Salatian 
dynasty — could be harmonized in one, it would assist in clearing up the 
record. We believe it possible and reasonable. 1. From the 2d to the 
7th dynasty is involved in doubt, on account of the hatred the Egyptians 
bore their conquerors, destroying their records. (See p. 43.) 2. There is 
no well-defined Memphian succession to the Cheopian dynasty given, 
the change after Mykera seeming to refer to Thebes, involving the doubt 
expressed on previous page regarding the "Priest-Kings." 3. The second 
invasion, therefore, may have referred to the reconquest of Thebes and 
"all Egypt" by the Salatis regnant at Memphis. 4. There is but one emi- 
gration of invaders distinctly referred to — when 240,000 went out peacea- 
bly, and ancient history presents us •with a traditional race to whom such 
a migration seems natural— the Cuthites, referred to hereafter. 5. Phil- 
istine history and tradition give us such names as Achish, ("Acthes,"— see 
footnote, p. 43— given by Manetho as of the second dynasty. The Sem- 
itic characters for S and Sh were identical before the use of vowel points, 
and Acthes could easily refer to Acthesh.), Saph, VSaophis, Suphis), Jan- 
nes, Asses, Salatis, etc., and at the same time either Cheops or his shep- 
herd was called Philitis or Philition. It is probable that a race of Semitic 
invaders held possession of portions of Egypt from the time of Timaus 
to the reign of Chebros-Amosis. See pp. 41-42, "Syncellus, etc." 

+In these names C and K are interchangeable. Cheops— "Keops." 

£Bonwick ("Pyramid Facts and Fancies. ") says: "The shepherd story 
brings to mind the Hindoo narrative of some early race of India, the 
Pali, who were a shepherd people, ancestors of the present aboriginal 
Bheels, succeeding once in conquering Egypt. Their stronghold, Abaris, 
is in Sanskrit, 'a shepherd.' " Mr. 1$. should have given his estimate of 
the value of this tradition, and its relation to the Pyramid 1 




I AV»V^, 


Fig. 13. Ovals of Oslrtesen II, or Mes- 

Fig. 14. Ovals of Osirtesen in, or 

Fig. 16. Chebros- 
Amosis, who expelled 
the Hyksos. As he was 
a direct successor 
of Osirtesen it con- 
firms our opinion that 

the Cheopian and Salatian invasions, if not 

identical, were closely related. 

Fig.15. Queen Scem- 
iophra, the last ruler 
or Thebes who sub- 
mitted to the Hyksos 
invaders. (Manetho.) 



Fig. 17. Chebros-Amosis IL 

Fig.18. Queen Nitocria 

Fig. 19. Thothmosls IL 



ring unquestionably to the Salatian dynasty. Sharpe puts 
it at about 1500 B. C, thus confounding them with the 
Hebrews, who — at this time — existed only in prophetic 

Again: "We read in the Hindu Paranas of a war be- 
tween the gods and earthborn 'Yoingees.' The latter were 
vanquished and retreated to Egypt." — Ibid. Mr. Wilson, 
an eminent writer on the astronomy of the ancients is in- 
clined to ascribe great intellectual power to the "Yoin- 

Fig.'iO. Amunophth I. 

Fig. 21. Thothmosis 111. 

gees" and believes them the pyramid builders of that age. 


The centre of government, after the expulsion of the 
last of shepherd kings, was at Thebes. Chebros-Amosis 
was followed by a son of same name, and next was Amun- 
othph I, (Fig 20) who was worshipped quite as much as 
any of his predecessors. 

Mespra-Thothmosis II (Fig. 19), enlarged the temples of 
Thebes and added to the glory of the kingdom. The mon- 
uments of this age are covered with inscriptions. It was 



a "golden age" of hieroglyphs. It was the era of the mi- 
gration of Jaeob to lower Egypt, and the ministry of Jo- 
seph at Memphis. Amun-Nitocris, (Fig. 18), wife of Mes- 
pra-Thothmosis II, was an ambitious woman whose influ- 
ence was felt throughout the kingdom. An eminent wri- 
ter tells us she united Thebes to her kingdom by diplo- 
macy. As we supposed we were dealing with a Theban 
dynasty in Mespra-Thothmosis, this part of her prowess 
we do not understand. 

A few years subsequent to the reign of Amun-Nitocris, 
under Amunophth II, son of Thothmosis III, the Exodus of 
the Israelites occurred. Having now reached a better foot- 



f * 

Fig. 33. Amunmai Thori III. 
Fig. 22. Amunophth II. 

ing in chronology, we close the epoch. This scarcely un- 
derstandable analysis of this doubtful period is given for 
the reason that the mystery of its history is a necessary 
part of the study of the Pyramid. 

Many of our names have been in accord with Sharpe, 
with several variations however, and different deductions- 
Down to the reign of Queen Nitocris there were 12 kings 
of Thebes, agreeing essentially with Eratosthenes, the 


Tablet of Abydos, and others. In confirmation of onr 
belief in Chofo's or Cheops bein a part of the first Hyc- 
sos invaders, Eratosthenes places him after Noubkori, or 
Amunmai II, at which time Thebes was under Memphite 

The following schedule of dynasties will conclude a 
chapter on the most conflicting history in human annals : 



17 Thinite kings of Man- Nothing known, 
etho. Exceedingly doubtful. 

1. Menes, 2800 or 2900 B.C. Priest-kings conquer- 
ed by Menes. 

2-3. 500 or 600 years of The- Usually under Theban 
ban kings. dominion. 

4. Conquered by Cheops the Cheops conquers Tim- 
invader, aus, 2200 B.C., and 

begins the Hyksos 
Osirtesen and successors reigns. 

Cephren or Sensuphis. 

Qu. Nitocris mentioned. IVTonVovo 

Without reason. XYXtsiiKtJi e. 

12 to The Salatian Hyksos 


Chebros-Amosis. Hyksos expelled. 

About 1900 B.C. 


We have thus given as substantial a record of the earli- 
est 1500 years of Egyptian history, as our pages and 
resources will admit. 

This embraces the period from Menes to the departure 
of the Israelites, and, without a question, includes the Pyr- 



amid era. Now let us take a view of the ethnological 
characters of the race or races at that time in the Nile 

There are many indications which point to Egypt as a 
field on which a great intellectual struggle transpired be- 
tween two grand divisions of the human family, — the 
Mongol or Turanian, and the Semite or Aryo-Semitic- 
After a certain period elapses from the founding of Thebes 

Fig. 24. Mongolian Type. Fig. 25. Semitic Type. 

we find the character of the people a well-developed Se- 
mitic type. But in the earliest ages, especially at Mem- 
phis, and always among her lower native castes, there is 


an equally well developed Mongolian, or at least Hamitic, 
expression. There are many indications that the earliest 
settlers of both Thebes and the Delta were Asiatics, while 
the glorious works of Morphology exhibited at Thebes a 
few centuries later, in which contour begins to sup- 
plant immensity, come in contact with the still unaesthetic 
culture of the lower Nile. Dr. Richardson says: — "Neither 
in their feature nor in their complexion have the Copts the 
smallest resemblance to the figures of the ancient Egyp- 
tian races as represented in the tombs at Thebes, or 
in any other part of Egypt? — an unsupported assertion, 
that is quite too strong. However, in the earlier epoch, 
even in Thebes, the graven faces were those of the modern 
"fellah." (Fig 24). In the oldest paintings, at Thebes or 
Memphis, the female face was tinged with the Tartar yel- 
low. The fact that they would not eat of flesh on reli- 
gious grounds; that they abhorred the sea; that they wore 
the single lock of hair; also the shape of the upper maxil- 
ary; the worship of the bull, and many traditions, point 
strongly to a Hindoo origin. 

But the change of facial and cranial type which soon 
occurred, points distinctly to an irruption into the Nile val- 
ley of a race of people differing from the native settlers. 
It constitutes apparently a new element in Siriad history. 
That the original inhabitants were not lacking in culture, 
nor intellect, is witnessed by the power Memphis devel- 
oped before the first invasion. That the struggle between 
the two races was a silent contest extending through ages 
of internal intercourse, is undoubted. Still, Memphis, 
which first received the invading intellect, did not take so 
kindly to the change as Thebes, so that those sculptures 
representing the Semitic type, (see Fig 25), are generally 
found in the ruins of Upper Egypt. Egyptologists have 


not recognized this change of type sufficiently, as an his- 
torical element. Whether it was produced by the migra- 
tion of a large tribe of nomads, or whether it was the 
earliest conquest by the shepherd kings, a race intellec- 
tually developed, with a monotheistic religion, (from 
Canaan,) is unsettled. The fact remains as witnessed by 
Rawlinson, Sharpe, and others, that the intellectual type 
was engrafted upon the Indo-Hamitic, and not at an 
earlier date than 2500 B. C, (our plan of chronology). 
The grandeur of this new epoch, in its peculiar line of de- 
velopment, can never be expressed in human language. 
Its nearest approach is in the mighty monuments whose 
lofty summits and outline majesty still defy the hand of 

We may hope for accuracy in one statement : — That 
Lower Egypt, (Memphite,) was peopled by Mizraimites — 
an Hamitic branch, of Mongolian type, as represented in 
the facial and cranial type of Fig 24. 

Syncellus tells us that Egypt was governed by a three- 
fold race of kings. The first were the Mestraei (Mezrites, 
Mitzraiinites), as noted. 2d, The Auritae, a "foreign dy- 
nasty of shepherd kings," who, according to Josephus, 
were dominant in Egypt for five centuries — an epoch 
which closes at 1879 B.C. Manetho recognizes these Au- 
ritae, though he gives to them a different number and dur- 
ation. The third race of kings were native Egyptians. 

Analyze the early history of Egypt and see when these 
Auritae must have appeared. Very few will differ from 
us in stating that the first conquest of Thebes was Mem- 
phite, under Cheops. Who was this Cheops of whom we 
have spoken? 

Cheops is described as a foreigner, a man who abused 
the Egyptians, insulted their gous, destroyed their temples 


and crushed the priesthood — later in life "repented and 


Now who were the Auritae? "They are said to have 
come from the East; to have set fire to the towns, and 
overturned the temples" — to have been in a state of con- 
stant hostility with the natives, "and the close of their dy- 
nasty, 500 years in extent, was in 1*700." 

In view of the improbability of two conquests of Egypt 
by shepherd kings during this period, it may be stated, 
with deference, that Cheops was the first of the Au- 
ritae, and that during the 500 years of their reign, 
they firmly planted their race type upon the soil of the 
Nile valley. The erasure of the shepherd cartouches from 
the monuments of this era — the consequent ignor- 
ance of them by the Egyptians ; their want of knowledge 
regarding that one Great Pyramid — all add to the value 
of this opinion. 

It may also be stated that at this early day an important 
modification of the Egyptian hieroglyphics may be traced. 
The early Aryan and Semitic types of picture writing 
were distinguished by a predominance of the vowel ele- 
ments; the Coptic by nearly an absence of vowels and 
preponderance of the consonants. But at some time dur- 
ing this thousand years vowels appear in such quantity 
as to indicate a new element in stone literature. Also the 
correlation between the age-characters and personal attri- 
butes of the Cheops of Herodotus and the Suphis 
of Manetho — the fourth Memphian and the sixth Egyptian 
dynasties — points unmistakably in the direction that all 
these finger marks of that period do— viz.: that at or just 
before the Memphian conquest of Thebes all Egypt was 
invaded by a more intellectual race of people; that they 
lei t theiv marks on the monumental history and the facial 


and cranial angles; and on the national character of the 
hitherto Hindoo — and Hamitic, occupants of the valley. 
Their life channel may be traced in its one grand tradi- 
tion — its origin from Menes. Its Menes came from Menu 
of India, and it went, 1000 years later, into Attic theotechny 
as Minos. There is also one channel in which a search 
among the traditions of the invading race is confined; and 
that is in the stream of theosophy older than Menu, Sabe- 
ism, or the perpetual fires of Iran — the monotheism of the 
race kindred to the Abrahamic, of whom Melchi-Zedek 
is the earliest pontiff-king! If the philosophy of this sing- 
ular history teaches us of this invasion of the shepherd 
kings at this time, it teaches that they were subsequently 
expelled, though not conquered. Still another dim circum- 
stance adds to the mystery of this invasion. During 
this period some "sacred books" were "written." Not stone 
books but papyrus books — and yet the "sacred writing" 
was the stone hieroglyphic system! The books are lost, of 
course. A whole race of kings let them alone, to crumble, 
and so did the priesthood. How could this have been if 
they were about the worship of the Sun-God, or Apis the 
god of life? At last a king searched his kingdom for 
them — and though he was unsuccessful in finding them, 
fragments of this same work have probably been secured,* 
— and they read much like monotheistic doctrine. A few 
sentiments are given from M. Chabas' translation : 

"If it may be humbling to thee to serve a wise man, 

*These fragments were found in the tombs of the "Acthoes" during 
"2d Thinite, 5th Elephantine, 6th Memphian, ninth Heracleopolite, 11th Di- 
ospolite," (Theban), dynasties. It seems the Acthoe king-, in the eyes of 
Egyptian priests was "wicked," that he was eaten up by alligators— after 
going mad; and all his Acthoite successors, with one exception, were 
called Nantef— so wicked were they. Their tombs are found near ancient 
Heracleopolis. Could the "writings" of such a race of kinffs be in accord 


thy conduct will be be good with God,* for he knows 
that thou art among the little ones. Do not make thy 
heart proud against him." 

"Obedience is loved by God. [Obedience to what?] 
Disobedience is hated by him. To hear the "WoRD,f to 
love, to obey, that is to fulfill good precept." 

"What the wise know to be death , that is his life every 
day." • 

The importance of a close review of this age, will ap- 
pear under the head of History of the Pyramid. 


Before closing the chapter, we feel compelled to refer 
to one or two points of general interest, as describing 
this epoch. 

In astronomy, the Egyptians were exceedingly back- 
ward, and in meteorology, and season divisions, their sys- 
tem was such as to convince the most skeptical, that no 
true system of cosmology, could originate among them. 

The year was divided into three seasons: The season 
of Vegetation, (Fig 26) embraces four months ; the season 
of Harvest, four months,(27), and season of Inundation 
four months. (28). This was in the pyramid epoch. Every 
month was divided into thirty days, (Fig. 26.), giving 360 
days to the year. This made the year five days short and 
the consequence can be readily surmised. "New years" 
steadily receded, until the period of vegetation may have 
been in the middle of the inundation season, or during the 
dry and sandy harvest! "At some unknown time" says 

with Egyptian polytheism? It may be proper to state that the Heracle- 

opolite king who was not called "Nantef" was exceedingly popular and 

powerful in Egypt, and seemed to live in harmony with Coptic theology. 

*This cannot refer to the innumerable deities of the Egyptians, nor to 
Ra, nor the translated Menes. The very signification of the term, and 
the doctrine implied, are foreign to Siriad theosophy. 

tDoes not sound hieratic or polytheistic. 



one writer, "five days were added," to correct the cycle; 
this probably did not occur until some Greek philosopher, 
or Phoenician conqueror, subsequent to B.C. 1200, brought 
them to a realizing sense of the year's true length 
and corrected a most remarkable peripatesis. 

Choeac. Athyr. FaophL Thoth. 





TU T £liLJ T £ 



Fig, 26. Season of Vegetation. 

Not until Eratosthenes, (270 B.C.), did the Egyptians 
know anything, so to speak, regarding the true science of 
astronomy. It was then demonstated by this mathema- 
tician, an ornament of the Greek School of Alexandria, 

Pharmuthi, Pharmenoth, Mechir, Tybi, 











Fig. 27. Season of Harvest. 

and keeper of Ptolemy Euergetes' library, that the earth 
was a ball. He also discovered a method of fixing lati- 

Mesore. Epiphi. Payni. Pachon. 









Fig. 28. Season of Inundation. 

tudes, by observing the shadows, at noon, at different 
places on equinoctial days. (Fig. 29). He also calculated 
the circumference of the earth by this method. (Fig. 30). 
He ascertained the obliquity of the ecliptic, by measuring 
the sun's shadow at the same place on the longest and 



shortest days of the year. He placed the circumference 
of the earg- at 250,000 Stadia. 


Still neither Eratosthenes the Greek, nor Manetho the 
Egyptian, undertook to translate the hieroglyphs for fu- 
ture generations. 

There is a widespread belief among many people, even 
students, that the ancient Egyptians Mere a highly devel- 
oped race, intellectually. Yet ft. is an error as far as it 



refers to the pre-Ptolemaic period. In astronomy, mathe- 
matics, chemistry, art, economics, (witness tr& processes 
of irrigation), literature, painting, sculpture, (aesthetic), 
perspective, etc., they were singularly and persistently 
backward. In the midst of the grand mausoleums, and 
monuments of ancient Egypt, down to live or six hundred 
years before Christ, no arch relieves the severe angular 

^ ^^ 

Fig. 31. Month. Half-month. Week. (U-K). 

structures. In astronomy, the sun moved around from 
east to west in its risings. Its figures came from Arabia. 
Its letters changed not from sound-pictures. Its tomb 
paintings were daubs. Yet in massiveness, in grandeur, 
in lofty and enduring structure, it overreached its own 
history. During the comparatively modern Alexandrian 
epoch, however, it became the seat of Grecian culture. 
The obelisk ceased, and literature developed — not Egyp- 
tian, but Grecian. 





Fig. 32. Names of Egypt in Hieroglyph c 




The thirty dynasties of Egyptian sovereigns are by some placed contin- 
uously, one following the other. The more advanced idea, however, is 
that many of them are contemporaneous. It would be contrary to the 
philosophy of general history that the Thinite, Theban, Memphite, Hera- 
cleopolite, Elephantine, and other independent kingdoms should co-exist 
more or less, in different ages, while their monarchs were distinct and 
successive. The following table represents the opinions of several author- 





By our 







X o 


















































































We do not think the above table wholly just to Wilkinson. In the "To- 
pography of Thebes" he puts Menes at 2201, and Suphis at 2123, about the 
same date as we have adopted for the latter. 

One of the most remarkable misconceptions of the duty of the histor- 
ian occurs in the work of Wilkinson referred to. On page 506 he says : "I 
am aware that the era of Menes might be carried to a much more remote 
period than the date I have assigned it; but as we have as yet no authority 
further than the uncertain statements of Manetho's copyists, to fix the 
time and number of the reigns intervening between his accession and that 
of Apappus, [Apoph. Maximus. Time of Abraham's visit. 1900. |. I have 
not placed him earlier for fear of interfering with the date of the del- 
uge of Noah, which is 2348 B. C" This is heroic confidence in Dr. Usher, 
though hard on the Septuaginta, by whom the Flood was placed a great 
many centuries before 2348 B. C. The Samaritans, perhaps, who do like- 
wise, also deserve some consideration. 

Before any definite era in Egyptian history, the territory lying between 
the Red Sea and Assyria, including Shinar, Sodom, Gomorrah, Edom, (Pe- 
trea), Ellasur, Goim; Salem, capital of what was afterwards Judea, with 
Melchi-Zedek for priest and king; Gomar, ruled by Abi-melech; the cities 
of Philisto-Arabia, and tribes of nomads, were all more or less familiar 
with the doctrine of monotheism— of one God, "one, ineffable, invisible, 
all-powerful," as taught in La-outse's "Four Kings." 

A comprehensive view of the Indo-Syrio-Coptic races, their locations, 
traditions and migrations, leads us to believe that an invasion of Egypt 


before the Hellenic era would result in the erection of monotheistic monu- 

Zincke, Vicar to the Queen, in 1871, gave the Nile markings of annual 
overflow on the granite hills at Semneh more chronological credit than 
they deserve. He states that "in every instance [of these inscriptions] the 
date is given.'* As he gives this particular record great importance in 
making the early Egyptian epochs extremely ancient, he should distin- 
guish between the numbered cartouche of a king, and a chronological 
date. There were no cycles, or other methods of astronomical chronol- 
ogy, established in the times of Osirtesen and Amenemha. 

Baldwin, in "Pre- Historic Nations," rests much of his excessive antiq- 
uity of Egypt on evidence like the following : "You Greeks are novices 
in antiquity. The history of 8000 years is deposited in our sacred books, 
but I can ascend to a much higher antiquity, and tell you what our fathers 
have done for 9000 years." This was said to Solon by an Egyptian priest 
several centuries B.C. Not a fragment of Solon's writings, if there ever 
were any, r. 'mains. Plato and others, who had gathered up some of his 
teachings, preserve his memory. But the value of the evidence is not 
only lessened by its age, oral character, garbling, and the known tendencies 
of the Egyptian priests: It is well known that the supreme effort of the 
priesthood of that age was to establish the certainty and renown of the 
Gods, especially the deified mortals who reigned on earth. This only could 
be accomplished through the mysticism of antiquity. It is ludicrous, fre- 
quently, to see them leap from some well-known personage, like Darius 
Hystaspes, 10,000 years backward to Zoroaster, who was nearly contempo- 
raneous with the former. Such testimony will not stand unsupported. 

"Shemmo" is the Egyptian name of the foreigners known as the Shep" 
herd race, who were driven out by Chebros-Amosis. They are thought by 
all historians to have been Canaanites. It will be remembered in this con- 
nection that "Chemmis" is the name given to Cheops by some ancient 
writers; also applied to Suphis. Amid the uncertainty, it is probable that 
the Cheopian race were the Shemmo of Egj^pt. 

According to Manetho, Queen Nitocris built the 
smallest of the three pyramids of Ghizeh. The name 
of King Mecora or Mencophra (Fig. 33) was found on 
the wooden sarcophagus in the underground chamber. 
Probably Mecora was the Theban name for the Mem- 
. phite king Thothmosis III, (Fig. 21), to whom the third 
|HBBHn I P. vramid is credited. 

"Spherical Trigonometry appears to have been 
A Li I waouv unknown in Ancient Egypt."— Kenrick. 

■ Ii I I The same writer says: "The fact that the pyramids 
iL^J fc^J I are placed with their sides exactly facing the cardinal 
points, shows that in the early age when these struc- 
tures were erected, they had the means of tracing an 
accurate meridian line. To accomplish this requires 
rather time and care than great astronomical knowl- 
edge. It is effected by the observation of the shadow 
of a gnomon, at the time of the solstices." 
Mencophra. Mr. Kenrick is doubtless correct in the first state- 

ment. It is natural, therefore, to expect from him an 
hypothesis as to how the trigonometrical relations of the Great Pyramid 
were established! It was built, and built in sublime proportions, and far 
more correctly than modern structures of monumental character. The 
second statement is peculiar for so eminent an authority. The practical 
knowledge either of a gnomon or the solstices was wanting in a race that 
figured 11,340 years from Menes to Sethos, (Heroditus), during which time 
the sun moved around the earth, in its rising, sideways, four timesl Hip- 
parchus lived 15 centuries after the pyramid epoch. 

















Two great cities arose in the Nile Valley during the 
earlier history — Thebes and Memphis. The latter was 
situated near the fork of the Delta. Parallel with the left 
hank of the west fork, stretching from Alexandria in the 
northwest to Dongal, and Nubia in the south, and sink- 
ing away westward under the desert sands — is a range of 
low-browed mountains. This is the Libyan chain. 
Where it draws near the Nile, a few miles farther above 
the forks, close to where once the powerful city of Mem- 
phis sent forth her armies, on the west bank, is a broad, 
broken plateau, known as the hill of Ghizeh. It is a bar- 
ren, and unsightly waste of rock and sand, painfully 
reflecting the glare of midday suns, and the glamour of 
unclouded moons. No spot on earth could have been 
selected more intensely disagreeable for human habitation 
or human glory — excepting the interior desert, on the 
confines of which we find it. 

Below it is a valley whose soil yielded her increase 
without rain, and whose population crowded its borders 
from within as the drifting sands from without. 

Here was a landmark erected in those dark hours before 
the dawn of civilization. Although the most extensive 
and enduring the world has ever known, it is impossible 
to ascribe to the builders any other development than 
that which comes with centralized power and accumula- 
tion of bodily strength. Here science has spanned 4000 
years, challenging tlie intellect and genius of the present. 
The hill is especially historic in later years, — here Napo- 



leon fought a most remarkable battle — demonstrating the 
wonder in military science of a hollow square — a battle 
which, says Alexander Dumas, decided the conflict 
between the East and the West. Here are the Pyramids. 

There are some sixty pyramidal structures remaining in 
Egypt — and the half-obliterated ruins of many more. But 
the three whicn crown the hill of Ghizeh are objects of 
more especial study; and of these three the greatest, the 
Pyramid of Ghizeh, is the first and foremost wonder of 
the world. 

On the west bank of the Nile, between the hill and the 
river, is the villag • of Ghizeh. On the east bank are the 
battered relics of "Old Cairo," now sometimes known as 
Fostat or Babylon, and a few miles farther to the north 
and east is Cairo, the capital of modern Egypt. From 
Cairo to the Pyramids is usually a distance of ten miles, 
but during the inundation it is fully twenty, by the neces- 
sarily circuitous route. One expression is in the mouth of 
every traveller who visits the Pyramid from Cairo: — "We 
thought them near by, and much overrated in magnitude. 
But wearily passing mile after mile, we found that their 
incomparable size deceived us— the distance was great 
and their proportions beyond description!" 

The Pyramid of Ghizeh stands upon a shelf of rock 
150 feet above the desert, and from 130 to 140 above the 
Nile. It is not alone either in its majesty or historic sig- 
nificance. Besides the two other large pyramids, there 
is another monument, of rude art but grand propor- 
tions, which is at least twenty-four centuries old. It is 
the Sphynx. There are also innumerable tombs, above 
and below the surface, in every degree of preservation, or 
rather destruction. 

Without entering into discussion, we can justly observe 



that there is no evidence that leads us to believe any Sir- 
iad monument now standing, is older than the Great Pyr- 
amid. The expression of such an opinion is often met, 
but the evidences are such that no reliance can be placed 
upon them. If the remains of such a pyramid present 
a broader base, than that at Ghizeh, and is shorn of its 
height, it is at once observed that time has worn it down. 
Time does* not do such exact execution as to clear off the 


tin i j u 1 1 1 1 1 iQ Hi\ 
D in LL! J? 



Fig. 35. Plan of the location of (he monuments on the Hill of Ghizeh. 
Remains of the great causeway in upper right hand corner. 

vast superstructure, leaving a few level tiers much less 
worn! Nor have the modern monarchs used the material 


for building, when more recent cities are nearer other 
monuments and quarries. Probably such ruins are the 
remains of uncompleted pyramids. Neither is it good 
judgment to give ruins of brick structures, however vast, 
a date antecedent to the blast-worn and earthquake-rent, 
rock-built memorials which have outlasted them! Turn- 
ing to the history of monumental Egypt, but this one 
Pyramid is heard from in the Ancient day — one which 
suddenly springs into the world's architecture, as a parent 
of the multitude of imitations which follow it. Never 
has there been a day in recorded time when The Pyramid 
was not looking out upon the world in solemn majesty. 

Arabian writers say it was built before the deluge. A 
very wonderful thought that! Its shape, its substance, pos- 
sibly its mission, may have preserved it from the wrath of 
the elements, to give to the survivors that cosmogony 
which an antecedent population possessed. Unfortunately 
for this hypothesis there are abundant evidences of a 
later period. The causeway, the debris, (chips), the hiero- 
glyphs in the hidden masonry, and the older histories, all 
give substantial clues to its epoch. 

Perizonius, and quite a number of mediaeval writers, 
ascribe it to the Israelites. Dr. Clarke also shoulders it 
upon the Israelites, as the tomb of Joseph; who, however, 
was disgraced by a Pharaoh who "knew not Joseph" nor 
respected his ties endants. Heroditu- calculates their erec- 
tion at two or three hundred years before Cambyses, (or 
about seven or eight hundred years B.C.). Conder con- 
cludes that 1000 years B.C. was not too modern a date. 

Although Heroditus has informed us that the date was 
only about twelve generations before Camby es, lie as- 
cribes its erection to Cheops and his brother, which 
would date at least 2000 years B.C. Eratosthene- refers 

history otf Tttii Pyramid. &5 

it to Suphis, of Manetho. Diodorus merely repeats the 
opinions of other writers, speaking of Chemmis, (Cheops), 
Cephren and Mycerinus first. Pliny is silent. Josephus, 
by inference, ascribes it to the Hebrews. Manetho, the 
Egyptian priest, gives Suphis as the builder, who is usu- 
ally regarded as identical with Cheops, Chemmis, Saophis, 
or Chofo. His cartouche, or hieroglyphic oval, was found 
on the masonry in Davidson's chamber. 

There is an ancient tradition, quoted by several writers, 
(referred to in chapter on Early History), of a shepherd 
race of India, the Pali, who once conquered Egypt, and 
the Pyramid has been ascribed to them. The Yoingees 
have also been referred to. Mr. Gliddon states that the 
direct descendants of Ham were the builders. Aristotle 
declared that they were built by despots to keep the peo- 
ple poor. Josephus relates a tradition of the descendants 
of Seth erecting two monuments, one of brick and one 
of stone, in Egypt, on which, or "in" which, they repre- 
sented astronomical science. (See §Astronomy.) 

The descendants of Ham have strong claims upon our 
belief. Not on account of the Mitzraimites, but of a race 
of wandering, migrating stone-builders known as Cuthites. 
These stone-builders were in no sense nomadic, but every- 
where in which the dim history of the past places them — 
from Scythic Europe and shadowed Nubia to Erseland, 
their Cyclopean ruins attest their power and skill. The 
Gadelians, (from Gad-el-Glas,) a race of Cuthites, migrat- 
ed from Egypt in the early ages.* 

Still, the majority of students believe the Pyramid to be 
the work of a race of Semites, (Shemites). All testi- 
mony points to the belief that natives of the valley did 

*Ancient history has so much yet to do and undo that we would not be 
greatly surprised if the "Gad"-elians were modernized into a portion of 
the lost ten tribes of Israel. We note this, that after tarrying- in Greece 
many years they migrate to the north of Ireland, where we also find the 
remnant of Dan. (Tuath de Danaans.) 



not build it:— Not one of their learned men knew aught 
of it; it had no hieratic writing either upon or within it, 
according to the best judgment of her historians;* it 
began an epoch in architecture to which they were stran- 
gers, and the close of the epoch was the introduction of 
the obelisk and colossus. We are fully aware of the 
opposing views of all the Egyptologists. Nevertheless 
such is our conviction. To say that the ancient Mastaba 
was the primitive pyramid is to say that the mound buil- 
der of Yucatan furnished the pattern for the mausoleum 
of Charlemagne. The "impulse," (p. 73), to honor the 
eminent dead may be universal, but the rough, unshapely 
mastaba was no more a pattern for the Cyclopean builders 
than the Indian mound of North America is a pattern for 
the invader, who, within a hundred years, erects the mar- 
ble shaft upon the same spot. It will scarcely be claimed 
that the slender obelisk is the evolution of a pyramid- 
yet both are angular elevations, both are commemorative. 
But both spring suddenly into being, as types, with no 
intervening gradations from a primitive form. In fact, 
the later pyramids became terraced, flattened, and perish- 
able—brick. The obelisk was monolithic. 

Not only does archaic history and tradition point to a 
foreign race as the builders, but all light reflected from 
its dark record illuminates the Hebrew account of the 
genesis of the world's postdiluvian population. The Sab- 
eans even state that antediluvians, the children of Seth, 
built it. 

The person to whom it is almost universally ascribed, 
is Cheops, whose eastern origin we have discussed. The 

fonlS^i^^^V^S 61 *^ hie ™»lypMc or demotic characters, has been 
«™ J!"i lu , ny P art °* the Pyramids of Gizeh; but as this [See p. BO.] was 
i P h / , ^>°n thee xtenor coating which has been entirely stripped from 
?^ at h- vra V lld ^ ltsdlsapiJe:,rance is not wonderful. The entire ab- 
sence of hieroglyphics in the sepulchral chambers, and in the sarcopha- 
gus, is more remarkable."-K E NRicK, (Herodotus, Notes on the text The 
inscription spoken of was Coptic or demotic, not hieroglyphic 


cartouches of "Shofo," in builder's paint, remain upon the 
rough rocks in the closed Chambers of Construction.*/ 
Herodotus states, of Cheops and Kephren: 

"No Egyptian will mention their names; but they always 
attribute their pyramids to one Philition, a shepherd who 
kept his cattle in those parts." 

Subsequently the "foreigners" left Egypt, (p. 34.), went 
to Canaan with 240,000 men, and built (Jeru)Salem. It 
is supposed by Prof. Smyth, Dr. Seiss and many others, 
that a certain Philitis, with a tribe of Semitic, monothe- 
istic Philistines, overcame Cheops "without a battle," — 
built the Pyramid and returned to Canaan — and that Phil- 
itis was the great and mysterious Priest, Melchizedec. 

1. That Philitis built the Pyramid seems a great strain 
upon probabilities. Instead of the words of the guide, 
(hermeneis) being given as an historical conclusion by 
Herodotus, it appears as an Egyptian sarcasm on Cheops 
by referring his great work to his "goat-herd."f 2. Is it 
possible that Philitis was Melchizedec if the migration to 
Canaan took place 500 years later, during the reign of 
Chebros-Amosis — i. e., he being builder of, and priest at 

In the statement of Herodotus, we call attention to the 
italicised word, "their" Mr. Bonwick uses it. The raS 
nvpoLjAidas of the text does not read so. It should be 
"the pyramids." "Their" would certainly leave Philitis 
out of his calculations. 

However much the antiquarian may delve, doubt sur- 

*Shofo is the Cheops, (Xeopas), of Herodotus, the Suphis of Manet ho. 
M. Chabas states that they are the natural renditions of Koufou of the 
monuments. Pei'haps Mr. Bonwick thus contuses the hated Cheops with 
u "meat and good" king and u book- writer." Kephren's oval also appears 
in the Pyramid. A great many evidences point to Cheops as the builder. 

+Lord Lindsay says the Royal Shepherds of Egypt built them— a great 
misconception, except as it refers to the shepherd conquerors of Egypt. 
Sharpe does not believe the Philistine Hyksos built the pyramids, based 
on the word "Philitis— Philistine." The Vedas refer to the Great Pyra- 
mid as "The Golden Mountain." See footnotes, p. 76. 


rounds the history .of the Pyramid's construction. We 
come to one conclusion, amid many conjectures: — that it 
was built by Cheops, a foreigner, and by a foreign race 
— the Hyksos. 

The Pyramid, as a whole, was a work of such immense 
magnitude that no nation of tq.-day could furnish the labor, 
treasure and material, for continuous construction. But in 
detail it is not composed of such immense blocks of stone 
as are elsewhere found, nor does it require machinery 
beyond present possibilities. It is the necessary demand 
of civil government applied to the modern social status, 
and its interior technique, that renders its repetition im- 
possible. Herodotus states that 100,000 men were twenty 
years building it. This is a very reasonable statement, for 
labor in Egypt was, and still is, given by the population 
for bare subsistence. The only requirement was that 
Cheops should scantily clothe and feed his hundred thou- 
sand men. Scarcely a nation in Europe is doing less than 
that to-day — not to mention the vast and costly arma- 
ments that accompany them. But while nations can get 
soldiers now for a pittance, per capita, they cannot open 
the treasuries for such vast public works, nor levy on the 
intellect which seems inclosed within the Pyramid. 

In view of the Cyclopean ruins at Thebes, Baalbec, and 
other ancient cities, the transportation of the material is 
not so remarkable. Remains of immense causeways from 
the Nile to the Pyramid still remain, (Fig. 35). Why it 
should not have been built nearer the Nile, and save such 
vast preparatory structures, is a question.* 

Many methods are given as the probable manner of rais- 
ing the stones up the giddy terraces. Few are worthy of 
serious attention, and being wholly supposititious they 
will not be discussed here. However, the plan of construc- 
tion is worthy of attention, as it has been the subject of 

*lt was not for lack of stone foundation, as has been suggested. 



much study and especially by Mr. Glidden. The illustra- 
tion, from "Egyptian Archeology? (Fig. 36), represents 
his views. "A" represents a vertical section of a pyramid, 
the foundations of which rest on the rock at an elevation 
above the level of cultivation. At "D" is a chamber hol- 
lowed out for sepulture. Over it is reared, by following 
generations, a succession of layers of masonry, until a cer- 
tain size is attained, when smaller stone, or even rub- 
ble, ("B"), complete it. Over this is added, still in terra- 


Fig-. 36. Sectional view of pyramids representing Glidden's views of 

ces, blocks of finer quality. Then the laborers begin at 
the summit and chip downward, as at "C," leaving a sym- 
metrical pile. There seem many unreasonable features in 
this hypothesis. After generations do not usually labor 
so extensively for dead relatives, as to absorb a nation's 
purse and power. Osborn wholly rejects the plan. The 
probability is that in the case of other pyramids, which 
were tombs, the dumb sleepers within reared them for the 
perpetuity of their own memory. Alas! the stones re- 


main but the names are fled! It is not at all certain that 
the Great Pyramid, the first and grandest, ever contained 

a corpse. 

With this diversion regarding its character, let us re- 
turn to its history. Being moderately certain that it was 
built during the first 1000 years of Egyptian history, and 
by Cheops or Suphis, we put its date between 2500 and 
2000 B. C, 1900 being the time of Abraham's visit. The 
former (2500) is the proximate date given by Wilkinson, 
Rawlinson and Lane, and 2228 is given by Osborn. 

Sharpe, however, comes down to 1*700, and a few Egyp- 
tologists struggle with 5700 B. C. There have been wri- 
ters who scored the date 1000 B. C. 

"With the exception of the Bible, Herodotus' writings 
furnish the earliest reference to it. This historian visited 
Egypt about 484 B.C., and described to some extent both 
the Pyramid and its causeway for transportation of mater- 
ials. The persons who gave Herodotus information re- 
garding it, stated that it was the tomb of Cheops, who 
was buried far beneath it, on a rock surrounded by water, 
admitted from the Nile by a secret passage. This was, 
we doubt not, an ignorant superstition, as there are no 
known passages any distance below the subterranean 
chamber. It was also stated that at least the causeway 
was covered with inscriptions, and one was seen upon the 

Pyramid. Freely translated, Herodotus says: 

"There was signified on the Pyramid, by means of Egyptian characters, 
how much was expended on "adishes, onions and garlic, for the laborers; 
and as I well remember, the interpreter, reading over the characters to 
me, said that it amounted to one thousand six hundred talents of silver." 

This inscription has been given by every writer on the 
Pyramid. It has delighted Bonwick, because it destroyed 
the "Fancy" that the monument was free from the idola- 
trous chisel. We see the looseness of the translation on 
page 56. We now pronounce this inscription a forgery 
by the Copts, which a careful rendering of the text would 
have disclosed. At the time Herodotus read this inscrip- 


tion even the Copts, not within the priesthood, had for- 
gotten the hieratic or hieroglyphic writing. We have 
strong evidence that the brilliant 'Greek School develop- 
ing at Alexandria shadowed ancient Egyptian cultivation 
to such an extent that her literature passed into oblivion, 
and her monuments were regarded as the Cyclopean relics 
of a powerful but illiterate people. The shadow had fal- 
len long before the time of Herodotus;* Isis had wept 
over a departed race, and (Os)Iris over a departed throne. 

But the miserable remnant of Egypt had not forgotten 
her hatred. The hermeneis or guide, probably, could no 
more read an hieratic inscription than the great Greek 
who had travelled the world over. But Herodotus knew 
Coptic or Egyptian letters from the ancient hieroglyphs. 

The latter he always referred to as cqd kty.-\ Dut in this 
inscription he distinctly uses (Sia AiyV7t.) the dia gram- 
mat)')) Aigyptio'n by which he always refers to demotic 
or Coptic characters. The hira is the condensed form of 
hiera, or "sacred." It is a pleasure to know that Herod- 
otus sneered at the inscription, stating that even the rock- 
inscribing of the cost of the iron tools, bread or clothing 
would be more important than this vegetable record. At 
present there are no such silly hieroglyphs on the monu- 
ments. The tendency of Egyptian rock-history was to 
preserve the memory of lofty attributes, power and merit, 
and not the supposed-to-be-eternal literature of the sim- 
plest food of a race of slaves — whom Cheops would have 
whistled to his side as he would a dog! 

Thus, while the Grecian mind, with its letters and phi- 
losophy, was driving out the intellectf of the servile race, 

*During Egypt's twenty centuries of power, Ezekiel said: "They shall 

be the basest of kingdoms. I will sell the land into the hand of the wick- 

' ed, I will make her land waste by the hand of strangers. There shall be 

no more a Prince of Egypt, etc." Conquered, reconquered, desolate, she 

has not had a native prince for about twenty-five hundred years. 

+Ibn Abd Alkokem, an Arabian philosopher, stated that among the 
learned men of Egypt he could find no certain information regarding the 


it is not probable that a servant hired from among the 
already degenerate Copts, could read mystical signs which 
had passed into the signification of a "caballah." Know- 
ing that Egyptian Priests hated Cheops, his memory and 
his monument, how natural to refer its construction to a 
goat-herd, to belittle the great work before his Grecian 
paymaster! How much to be regretted that the inscrip- 
tion cannot be pictorially represented. 

The utter ignorance of the Copts of the geometric prin- 
ciples upon which these structures were built is signifi- 
cant; nor have we evidence that the Egyptian race ever 
understood spherical trigonometry, or even angulation. 
We must bear in mind that it was the Grecian civilization 
which radiated from Egypt during the Ptolemaic period. 
Also that Osirtesen, the reputed architect of Luxor and 
Karnac, was doubtless a High Priest during the Shepherd 
reigns. Egypt's later astronomy came from Arabia. 

Good old John Taylor sought to escape the idolatrous 
imprint of the above inscription by supposing the onions 
to be really degree(°) marks, the garlics and radishes rep- 
resenting minutes (') and seconds ("), of which the guide 
was ignorant. 

An old Coptic tradition refers to another inscription: 

"I Saurid, the King, built the pyramids in . .a time 
and finished them in six years; he that comes after me, 
and says that he is equal to me, let him destroy them in 
six hundred years; and yet it is known that it is easier 
to pluck down than to build. And when I finished them, 
I covered them with sattin, and let him cover them with 
slats." — (Greaves.) 

The suggestion of "Arabian Night's" is too strong in 
this Arabian translation. We deferentially suggest the 
same to Mr. Bonwick. 

Biblical references are rare, but of great historical value. 
Portions of the Bible were doubtless written as early as 



1600 B. C, and the Edomitic work (Job) may have been 
contemporaneous with the later years of the first llyksos. 

The spirit of the Abrahamic fatherhood over his de- 
scendants makes even a statement as late as Jeremiah, 
(750 B. C), of far more value than the chance light thrown 
by a solitary historian of early Greece ; and inasmuch 
as the claim is distinctly set forth that the God of 
Israel built, or directed the building of the Pyramid, it 
is best to analyze its allusions well. But much of this will 
come under the head of the sixth statement of the "Anal- 
ysis." There is much evidence that the Israelites were 
familiar with the Pyramid, and, though strange as it may 
appear, were in the habit of ascribing 'its erection to 
divine impulse. Although, as a matter of history, there is 
no word connecting the Pyramid with the Hebrews, as 
represented elsewhere, it was undoubtedly erected by a 
Semitic race whose origin was either in direct line with 
Abraham, or related to him through Shem and Noah. 

And this race of Shemites or Semites were the peculiar 
inheritors and propagators of the religious wisdom which 
the world lias accepted in the Bible, and is not unlikely 
- to accept in the Pyramid — the one through Abraham, 
the other possibly Melchizedek. There has been an im- 
pression abroad that the Hebrews themselves, either under 
Joseph's ministry, or while in servitude, erected this vast 
structure. But this was quite impossible ; nor, when we 
view the whole history of the valley, filled with works of 
magnitude and grandeur, does it seem that its erection — 
as far as the manual labor was concerned — was beyond the 
possibilities of Egypt during any ancient epoch. The 
x Israelites were not in Egypt before 1750 B. 0. Abraham 
lived 1900 B. C. The Pyramid was doubtless built 21 or 
2200,B.C. Its own date is 2170, B.C. Again, the Bible 


speaks of the labor of the Hebrews as consisting of brick 
work, a more modern architecture than the stone era. 

Had the Great Pyramid of Egypt been a part of the 
Abrahamic "Logos," it would have been referred to in the 
Bible as the direct mission of the Israelites in Egypt. 

On the other hand, the Bible references are just such 
as would occur if the Pyramid were a mystic testimony 
to them, of the same God, by a kindred and antecedent 
race — the real mysteries of which were one day to be dis- 

The most remarkable item in the history of the 
Pyramid is that its interior passages were immediately 
closed after completion. Not only was it closed on the 
surface, but that ascending passage was so completely 
blocked by an immense stone portcullis that to this day 
it has never been removed. If the Pyramid were built in 
the year 2170 B. C., then during the growth and ascend- 
ency of the Assyrian Empire ; the development of the 
Abrahamic succession to Shem ; the genesis of the Hebrew 
nation through the children of Israel ; the singular exist- 
ence of Edom ; the rise and commercial eminence of Syrio- 
Phcenician Tyre; the evolution of Hellenic nationality; 
the founding of Rome ; the decadence of Greece ; the tri- 
umphs and decline of the eternal city ; the destruction of 
Jerusalem ; the Birth and crucifixion of Christ ; the vast 
aggregation of papal power, and the Hegira of Mahomet; 
the lapse into the "dark ages;" — during all these bub- 
bling, seething, changing years of humanity's history, 
those cavernous records of sublime intelligence were 
closed. Why? 

The limestone facing of the Great Pyramid was removed 

♦This proposition will be peculiarly acceptable to those who have studied 
the new and startling discoveries regarding: "Anglo-lsraelitism." Any 
person who desires to study the Pyramid should investigate this subject 
—for it is rapidly assuming importance in the ethnology of Europe. 



long before any modern writer described it. Still, the 
entrance by which we now pass in was unknown until 
opened by interior excavations.* 

In the year 825 A. D. , Caliph Al Mamouii, the Mahom- 
medan ruler of Cairo, became convinced that vast treas- 
ure was stored within the Pyramid. He set men at work 
with fire, chisels, and vinegar, to open the heart of the 
mystery. Months of anxious expectation and deferred 
hope made the hearts of his laborers sick, for the dark, 
hot, dusty hole they projected was slowly piercing the 
very heart of the mountain, but no treasure nor mystery 

Fig. 38. Horizontal section of passage around 

portcullus, K. N, Junction of Al Mamoun's hole and original passage. M, 

Coming from the north. O, Same as H in Fig. 37. 

Fig. 37. D, C, E, F, Passage cut by Al Mamoun's laborers. A, Masonry. 
B, Original entrance, closed and forgotten in A 1 Mamoun's time. F, Pas- 
sage cut around the portcullus, same as L in F ; g. 38. G, Descending pas- 
sage closed with rubbish. H, .Ascending passage, filled with loose rocks. 
P, Portcullus. 

was unveiled. Muttcrings and discontent informed the 
Caliph that to go much farther with such onerous labor 
and such draughts on his treasury would threaten revolu- 
tion. One hundred feet were passed and still solid rock 

•The Romans are said to have discovered the entrance by removal of 
a stone over the opening. 


before them. In the thick and heavy air the workmen 
dropped their primitive tools and gave up the task. A 
few moments more and the great effort to pierce the 
Pyramid's heart would have ceased, and the world have 
henceforth regarded the ancient pile, as Al Mamouu 
would have done — a solid pyramid of masonry! What 
other person would have subjected himself, after such a 
trial, to the laugh of the world, and the great waste of 
means, to do the same thing over? There was a "destiny" 
as some would say — a "Providence," as most willinsist, 
in what occurred. In the midst of such silence that the 
heart's beating could be heard,* while nerveless Arabs 
were gleaming upon each other with suspicious eyes and 
rebellious hearts, and the dim torches casting sepulchral 
shadows in the narrow way — a clull, heavy sound, as of 
falling masonry, was heard near them, but farther with- 
in the rock. Every man sprang to his work, and in the 
direction of the sound they soon burst into a passage- 
way of most wonderful finish and polish! Now indeed 
were the treasures of Araby's day-dream within reach! 
A few steps into the darkness, and lo! The passage (seen 
alone in the ascending direction, for the descending pas- 
sage had been filled with sand and rubbish), was blocked 
by an immense portcullus of stone, which defied all human 
efforts to remove. And what was most interesting, this 
upward passage would not have been known but for the 
falling of the stone. 

No one has yet pierced the mystery of this singular 
coincidence. See B, Fig. 50, for its location. 

These now hopeful Arabs soon dug around the massive 

block, (Fig. 37), and found the passage above filled with 

rubble stone and broken rock. It was a laborious task 

to remove these one by one; but when accomplished, says 

*As in Mammoth Cave. 



Dr. Seiss — "Up and up the smooth and long ascending 
fLor-lines the marauders pushed their slippery and doubt- 
ful way, till near the end of the Grand Gallery. Then 
they clambered over a three-foot step, then bowed their 
heads beneath a low door-way, bounded on all sides witli 
awful blocks of frowning red granite; and then leaped 
without further hindrance, into the Grand Chamber, the 
first to enter since the Great Pyramid was built." 

But the crest fallen Ishmaelites found nothing but an 
empty stone chest, known as the coffer or sarcophagus. 

The failure to find treasure, it is said, so enraged the 
laborers that Al Mamoun pretended to find enough gold 
to pay all the expenses, buried in one of the chambers. 

Fig. ;«*. The Great Pyramid 
1900 years B.C. 

Fig-. 40. Same 600 A. D. 

After this attempt, the Pyramid had a long rest. The 
passage of Al Mamoun became filled with rubbish, and 
finally obscured ; the regular entrance had not been opened, 
and once more the dawn and nightfall of ages passed 
over its eternal secrets. 

But the Arabs had discovered much, and it was not 
wholly forgotten. In the 17th and 18th centuries a gen- 
eral interest again became manifest among European 



scientists, in the Great Pyramid. Mr. Davison, who was 
British Consul at Algiers in 1763 spent 18 months inves- 
tigating its interior, appropriating great labor and expen- 
diture to unravel its mysteries. He also discovered the 
chamber of construction named after him. 

But to Prof. Greaves, (16 3 7), an enthusiastic English- 
man, belongs the earlier credit of devoting toil and for- 
tune to "Pyramidographia," the title of a work publish- 
ed by him.- He made the first distinct attempt to get 
correct measurements. M. Maillet made great exertions 


Fig. 41. Great Pyramid until the 
close of the eighteenth century. 

Eig. 42. In 1840. 

to elaborate its interior — successfully explored many pas- 
sages, and altogether entered the structure for mensu- 
ration over forty times. 

In 1817 Mr. Caviglia repeated the investigations of 
Messrs. Wood and Davison. He opened the subterranean 
chamber, with great trouble and danger. The French 
scientists under Napoleon, 1799, made extensive researches, 
and rendered much valuable information. 

To Gen. Howard Vyse belongs great credit. He de- 
voted his life and fortune to the development of many of 
the facts now so well known; reopened Al Mamoun's hole; 
made new excavations, and cleared out passages; found 


the first casing stones in the rubbish; found the four upper 
chambers of construction, with the hieroglyphs of Cheops 
or Suphis; gave remarkably correct measurements, and 
also opened up the neighboring pyramids. 

Before us lies a volume written by a Pyramid scholar 
and enthusiast — John Taylor, of Leonard Place, Kensing- 
ton. It was written in 1859, and the title is, "The Great 
Pyramid. Why was it built? And who built it?" He 
made an honest attempt to "recover a lost leaf in the 
worlcFs history" (The italics are his). He opened to the 
world the great volume of stone in the light of an Inspired 
Work; and in illustration brought out its mathematical, 
astronomical and metrical properties in strong light. 

From that day to this, twenty years, his views have 
been developing and enlarging until many thousands of 
thoughtful students are in union with them. He has 
recently passed away, but not until he saw the flame he 
lit radiating from Egypt over the whole world. 

Prof. Piazzi Smyth, Scotland's Astronomer-Royal, took 
up the question in 1864, before the Royal Society, and 
subsequently published his work "Our Inheritance in the 
Great Pyramid." In a few months he determined to inves- 
tigate, personally, the mighty problem. So in 1865 he 
visited the Pyramid, at great personal expense, with/'crra- 
ily, instruments, skill, knowledge, and an intense faith, to 
back him. His researches and measurements will be a 
monument to his memory. They are recorded in two 
works: "Life and work at the Great Pyramid," and "An- 
tiquity of Intellectual Man." 

There have been many other writers upon this subject, 
and the interest is extending to the general public. The 
antiquarian world is awaking to the investigation of a 
monument whose vastness and hidden purposes loom up 


through the ages to belittle the modern man and modern 

The great question involved in the history of the Pyra- 
mid is — was it built as a tomb? At the time of its erec- 
tion the Egyptians were in the habit of burying in a rock, 
and for the eminent dead, they built temples or tombs. 
Even Abraham was buried in a cave at Macphelah. Thou- 
sands of rock-tombs surround the pyramids. All the other 
pyramids were tombs, in the judgment of Egyptologists. 
Mummies have been found in the sarcophagi within the 
sepulchral chambers. But the other pyramids are all, 
doubtless, subsequent to the Great Pyramid, and suppos- 
ing the latter to be a tomb, the builders took pattern after 
it. That they did not understand the entire import is evi- 
dent from the fact that, 1st, the upper and symbolic cham- 
bers were sealed by a great stone which never has been 
removed, but is passed by digging around. And 2nd, that 
no attempt was ever made to follow in that direction, by 
constructing upper chambers in the others. Still, it is 
possible that Cheops, knowing the hostility of the Egyp- 
tians, built a subterranean tomb as usual — but arranged 
the upper chambers for utilitarian purposes, — and after 
death secured burial in the upper rather than the lower 
rooms — then sprung the mighty portcullus of stone. How- 
ever this may be, and it is extremely doubtful, the sym- 
bolisms of the mighty monarch whose tomb it was or was 
not, still remain. 


Ancient vertical height, 5813.13 Pyramid inches. This is not absolute, 
Dut meets certain requirements of structure, and the variations may In- 
due to the precise intersection of the side angles and the corner socket 
base line not being positively ascertained. 

Present vertical height, 5439 P. inches. 

Length of base side, 9131 P. inches. Same difficulty referred to in height. 

Height of sides, angular, 7392.86 P. Inches. 

Cubic volume, over 91,000,000 cubic feet. Weight, about 7,000,000 tons. 

The geometrical shape of a pyramid is familiar to all, 
and strangely isolated from books and society must lie be 
who has never heard of the great pattern in the desert- 
bound valley of the Nile. The tumuli of prehistoric 
races are doubtless children of the same impulse in arch- 

In mensuration a pyramid is the same to a triangle that 

a cube is to a square, a sphere to a circle. The triangle, 
the square, the circle, measure surface, while their cog- 
nate shapes measure volume. All the pyramids of Egypt 
are not specially worthy of note, as exhibits of mathe- 
matical or aesthetic proportions. But the Great Pyramid, 
when unnmtilated, was a figure of remarkable design and 

Its height from the base rock to the original apex has 
been variously given. Many measurements were imper- 
fect owing to the ragged character of the exterior. But 
Col. Howard Vyse, and Prof. Piazzi Smyth have both 
carefully measured it by angles established after several 
of the original casing stones were discovered. In 1797 
the French savants, who made such thorough researches 
about the Pyramid, discovered at the corners, "sockets" or 
"encastrements" in the base rock, which gave reasona- 
bly exact points from which to measure the base-sides 
and the angle of inclination. These sockets subsequently 



became filled and covered many feet by the drifting sand 
and accumulating debris, so that Col. Howard Vyse, who 
again uncovered them forty years after, found an Hercu- 
lean task before him. 

Although at least a hundred different measures have 
been given, of the size of the Pyramid, there can now be 
little doubt of the approximate correctness of the follow- 
ing: Perpendicular height, from base to ancient apex, 
5818.94 English inches.* Pyramid inches, 5813.13. The 
length of a base side 9140 inches. (Pyr. Ins. 9131.) 

It therefore covers somewhat more than thirteen acres, 
with a volume of over 91 million cubic feet, weighing 
nearly 7 million tons, the largest accumulation of mas- 
onry in the world. It is higher than the highest pinnacle 
of St. Peter's at Rome. 

As before stated it faces the cardinal points, being only 
5' out of an absolute orientation. f The inclined sides 
were once smooth and shining, with no break on the pol- 
ished surface. Strabo speaks of a secret stone which 
could be removed, and give entrance to the "tomb" with- 
in. This was a tradition of slight value, based on the 
ancient love of the mysterious. If true, the "secret" 
entrance was forgotten. About 1000 years after Christ, 
the Mohammedans began to strip off the marble casing 
to build palaces and bridges, and in the 18th century, 
even up to the time of Col. Vyse's explorations, it was 
not known that it ever was cased. Even now there are 
some hardy theorists, as there always are, who dispute 
it. While Col. Vyse was laying bare a side, down to 

*English (or American) inches will be understood in this work, when 
not otherwise defined. The Pyramid inch is .001 of an inch Longer than 
the English. The general expression in *s.eet for the Pyramid dimensions 
is— 486 feet high, 764 feet on a base side. The present height is 454 feel . 

tThis is an isolated case of correct orientation, vs. Proctor notwith- 



the "esplanade," he fortunately came in contact with two 
of these casing stones in position. Thus by the encastre- 
ments discovered by the French, to give extreme corners, 
and these casing stones to give the precise angle of incli- 
nation, the measurements became reasonably exact. 

The pyramid, as most are aware, is built in receding 
terraces, or tiers of masonry, and these casing stones were 
fitted into each tier, with great exactness, bevelled on the 
exterior surface, and joined or jointed with astonishing 
perfection. Several pieces have since been discovered 
and taken to Great Britain, but those of Col. Vyse were 
lost. These casing stones are important items in Pyra- 


Fig-. 44. and 
and decimals of a foot. 

Fig. 45. Casing- Stones, figures representing feet 

mid study, and we give their figure, (Fig. 45). By these 
casing stones the angle of inclination is ascertained, and 
reckoned at 51° 51' 14.3". But even this is taken at a 
mean from several calculations, as the opposite angle 
varies from a right angle. However, the error, if any? 
would be so fine that it will scarcely modify the great 
problems involved. 

The latest deductions give the angle of inclination of 
the sides at 51° 49', instead of that given above. But in- 
asmuch as 51° 51' 14" is required for what is henceforth 
described as the Pi proposition, (quadrature of the circle), 



Fig. 46. 

we retain it. Any student in engineering understands 
the difficulty of working in minutes, to say nothing of 
seconds, and how slight an error a ' is. 

Fig. 44 represents the de- 
tached triangle by which thu 
inclination is measured, A, B. 
C being not quite a right an- 
gle when drawn parallel to 
the edge attached to the ma- 
sonry. Fig. 46 represents an 
elevation (sectional) of one of 
the casing stones, as found. The figures 128°8'45.7" give 
the obtuse angle, which taken from 180° leaves 51° 51'- 
14.3" as the angle of inclination. 

When these marble casing stones were in place, white 
and polished, and every joint so fine that a lens alone 
disclosed them; and when the unclouded sun of Araby 
arose over the Red Sea — reflected from its vast surface 
till it glowed and glinted in fiery splendor — how like a 
jewel from heaven must it have appeared. Picture its 
reflection in the changing tints of the calm and mirrored 

People who have gazed upon its shattered beauty, ignor- 
ant of the mystery within, and che ancient glory without, 
are still struck with a sublime appreciation — what must 
the jierfect Pyramid have been ?f 
As the sides of the Pyramid now appear they are immense 

"Strabo, one of the earliest Greek writers, says:— "It looked as if it h:;d 
descended upon its site, ready formed from Heaven, and had not been 
erected by man's laborious toil." Diodorus said, "It seemed as if placed 
on the surrounding sand by the aid of some deity, rather than by the 
s le and gradual operations of man." 

+"Piramona" was Coptic for "splendor of the sun " "Pi-re-nes," according 
to Lazerco was "splendor of fctaj sun." 


stair cases of receding tiers of masonry, each step being 
from two to four feet high, and in many places almost 
obliterated by the action of the weather, and by the vis- 
itors who send fragments of rock booming down from 
the summit. Still, as you look at the pile from a little 
distance, this terraced condition of the sides is lost in the 
grey outline. It shows how travelers differ in regard to 
every thing pertaining to measurements, that so few per- 
sons agree as to the number of tiers or terraces on a side. 

Pococke, there in 1743, gives 260, the same as Lewen- 
stein. Conder gives 206, and Greaves 207. Maillet, 208; 
Vausleb 255, andBellonius 250. Lucas 243, Sicard(l7ll) 
220, Davison (1763) 206, Ferguson 203, Dufeu 202, Pros- 
per Alpinus (1591) 125. 208 seemed to be the number gen- 
erally agreed upon, until Prof. Smyth counted them and 
gave the measurement of each of the 202 tiers. 

This difference is largely owing to the rubbish at the 
foot covering more tiers during some centuries than 
others; some sides being less perfect or more broken up; 
the top platform being smaller and higher, and, possibly, 
there being an actual difference on different sides. 

On the top there is a level, the apex having been trun- 
cated. At least some portion of the loss of the upper 
corner has been by "wear and tear." Travelers who try 
to see how far out toward the base line they can throw a 
stone, or who send rocks hurling, crashing down the sides, 
have destroyed considerable. However, had there ever 
been either a marble-casing or common rock corner-stone it 
would have withstood the wear of the elements many 
thousand years longer than it has. History tells us the 
marble was intact 8 or 900 years ago, but is not precise 
about the "chief-corner stone." 

All the writers on the Great Pyramid seem puzzled 
over this platform at the top. It is rather more than 30 


feet square, and hence is, and has been for ages, too large 

to be accounted for solely by removal of the corner stone, 

unless that were indeed a wonderful piece of marble. 

The earliest writers describe the platform as much 

smaller than at present. Some declare it never had an 

apex. It has been supposed, in modern times, in view 

of the religious symbolisms of the interior, to be the 

"chief-corner stone which the builders rejected" — or the 

type of Christ. 

It is rather a laborious task to reach the top, but most 

travelers do so, when a very remarkable view is thrown 
out before them. In the west the Libyan chain ; to the 
south ward, the Mokattam range; eastward, the quiet Nile 
passing along just as when Great Ramesis rushed his 
chariot along its banks; and all about, the wonderful "Field 
of Pyramids," with the tombs of the mightiest of earth. 
Near by is the Sphynx, and but a few hundred feet off 
are the great brothers of the monument, but little smaller, 
and better preserved. On the northern face of the Great 
Pyramid the rubbish extends up the side from fifteen to 
sixteen courses of masonry. At forty-nine feet from the 
base, at the fifteenth or sixteenth course, on this north 
side, is an entrance into the interior. It is a small, nar- 
row tube, three feet, five and one-half inches wide, and 
three feet and eleven inches high perpendicular to the 
incline. (Fig. 47). The opening has been badly mutilated, 
g^ gg^gg^ the masonry being torn out 

.. x. for a considerable distance. 

A- \ Strange feelings thrill the 

'te^i^ soul as one enters this dark 

and silent passage. The bats 
Fig. 47. and vermin, once prevalent, 

are now mostly driven away by the constant stream of 



visitors; but in the earlier day, say in 1610, when Sandys 
entered, the pile of rubbish scattered within, and the dis- 


gusting vermin, its inhabitants, made exploration decid- 
edly unpleasant. 



1 C 



I I I I 1 1 I I I } 





Fig". 19. View of the entrance, dark square being the opening. 


A very peculiar architecture is present at this opening, 
— so peculiar that we wish to call special attention to it. 
No writer has thus far mentioned the matter, but it may 
be of direct importance to the Pyramid student. In Fig. 
49 appear two triangular layers of masonry, the opening 
forming a square block beneath. A portion of the name 
of Egypt, (Fig. 32, p. 47), resembles this closely. Inves- 
tigation since the first edition confirms the opinion that 
it is a significant hieroglyph. It is worthy of note from 
the fact that it is the only structural mark on the build- 
ing connecting it with the stone literature of Egypt. But 
this is a "structural" hieroglyph and not graven; and prob- 
ably only exposed when the casing was torn off.* 

Almost every writer has claimed that beyond a few 
builder's daubs to guide the workmen, in unfinished cham- 
bers, the Great Pyramid was wholly free from hiero- 
glyphs. This double layer of pyramid-arch over the 
entrance is not for the purpose of strength of structure, 
for the arch was unknown in Egypt for twelve hundred 
years after the Pyramid was built, and a capstone covers 
the passage completely. Again, in the inner chambers 
there are flat roofs over large rooms. 


From ancient entrance to Subterranean Chamber, 4445 Pyr. inches. 

" " '* " floor line of ascending- passage, 988 P. inches. 

Ascending passage from floor junction to Grand Gallery, 1542.46 P. in. 

The entrance is not in the center of the pyramid, east 
and west, but removed some 24 feet and six inches to the 
east. The design of this deviation is unknown, unless it 
were to deceive those who searched for entrance during 
the ages it was sealed. 

Entering the narrow opening represented in Figs. 48-9, 
we find a passage of uncomfortable dimensions, extend- 

* This hieroglyph seems to have some dim relation to material life 
(Apis), as distinguished from Isic or spiritual existence, in another and 
cruder channel of investigation, throiurn ( ftnldaic and Semitic similitudes 
and Phoenician originals, it reads: "ENTRANCE to TEMPLE." 


ing southward and downward at an angle of 26° 27'. As 
this descending passage is now somewhat clear of rub- 
bish, we can proceed without material change for a dis- 
tance of 343 feet and 10 inches from ancient entrance, 
when it becomes horizontal for 27 feet farther. At this 
point it enters a subterranean chamber. At least 23 feet 
have been worn and broken away from the mouth, so 
that its real length is 320 feet. 988 Pyramid inches from 
the opening, the ascending passage begins, the one which 
is blocked by the portcullus. The angle of ascent is 26° 
18'. After passing upwards with no further deviation 
beyond the forced entrance of Al Mamoun, for the dis- 
tance of 1544 inches, we suddenly straighten up in a 
long, lofty hall called the Gallery. At present a few fig- 
ures merely are given. By referring to Fig. 48, the high- 
est number engraved in the passage is 2527 which implies 
that it is exactly 2527 inches from juncture of ascending 
passage and Grand Gallery. A little farther down are 
two lines vertical, and next, a dotted line at right angles 
with floor of passage. The dotted line is cut into the 
stone, and is supposed to represent the time of building 
the Pyramid, 2170 B.C. The other lines figured are joints 
in the masonry, every one of which has been most care- 
fully measured by Prof. Piazzi Smyth. It will also be 
noticed in Fig. 48 that the layer of masonry on the side 
wall near mouth seems to be doubled up, backward, four 
inches below 2320, a subject to be referred to hereafter. 

The passages in the Pyramids of Ghizeh do not vary 
much from 40-42 inches in width, and from 45 to 50 in 
height, all too small for erect standing. 


Length, east and west, 551.4 P. inches. 

Width, north and south, 324.6 P. inches. Height irregular". 

The Subterranean Chamber, 370 feet, 10 inches from 
ancient mouth of inclined passage, is a large, gloomy vault 


46 feet long, east and west, 27 feet and 1 inch wide, and 
1 1 feet 6 inches high at highest point. Within it a shaft 
has been sunk 36 feet, with no apparent object, unless to 
search for the tomb of Cheops. The Subterranean Cham- 
ber is 99 feet below the base of the Pyramid, from base 
to ceiling. There is a continuation of the horizontal sub- 
terranean passage (D, Fig. 43) on the south side, 52 feet, 
9 inches. This chamber was entered over 60 years ago, by 
Caviglia, with great difficulty. He found both Greek and 
Roman characters inscribed on the walls. Ancient writers 
declare it to have vaults, but they have not been found. 
The location of the Chamber is under the centre of the 
Pyramid, but the centre of the room is out of the verti- 
cal axis about three feet east and west, and five north and 
south. The chamber is rough, and torn up in places. 


Reference to Fig. 43 will show a long, irregular passage 
descending from the large hall or gallery referred to, down 
to the subterranean passage. This is known as the Well. 
By it any one can reach the interior of the Pyramid by 
ascent, without passing the portcullis, in the ascending 
passage; or, being in the upper rooms, can find their way 
out. It is a tortuous and disagreeable hole to penetrate. 
Another reference to it will be found on page 87. 

Length, 178.6 P. inches. 

At the point of junction between the descending and 
ascending passages, (Fig. 50, and l, Fig. 71,) is the stone 
which, by dropping, exposed the portcullis, This is of 
granite blocks, pushed down the passage, the first one be- 
ing tapered to wedge tightly into the constricted mouth 
of the passage. It is 178.8 inches long. It was imper- 
fect in one element — the veil which fell while the Arabs 



were pounding away at the masonry near by. But for 
this circumstance the interior would have remained sealed 

for ages. 

The ascending passage rises at an incline of 26° 18', 

Fi.:. 50. Junction of ihe descending and ascending passages. E, the 
Descendng Passage. F, Ascending Passage. D, Al Mamoim's Hole. A, 
Portcullis. B, Stone which fell. C, Masonry. 

and is 1542.46 inches, or about 128 feet 6 inches to the 
Grand Gallery wall. 


Breadth, 82.12 Pyramid inches. Mean vertical height, 339 P. inches. 
Extreme length, on the ramps, 1881 P. inches; on graven line, 1878.4. 

The Grand Gallery is a long, narrow, high hall, ascend- 
ing at the same angle as the passage. Its sides are made 
up of seven layers of masonry, each of which, as it rests 
upon the under one, laps over into the Gallery thus con- 
tracting its width near the ceiling. On each side of the 
floor of the Grand Gallery, extending up its entire length, 
is an elevation or solid stone bench, 24 inches high, and 
projecting out on the floor so that the entire breadth of 
Gallery of 82.12 inches is reduced, between the benches, 
to 41. 2 inches^ the benches being each 20.5 inches wide. 



'These benches are known as "ramps," and are composed 
of regular layers of stones. A perspective view of them 
can be had in Fig. 51, B, and plane in Fig. 53. The sec- 
ond stone, on the west — or right hand side entering, has 
been forcibly removed. It is known as the missing ramp 
stone. Figs. 5^'and 53. In 53 an arrow is seen pointing 
downwards. This is the mouth of the v;elZ y and it is 
about 25 inches beyond the entrance or north wall of Gal- 
lery. To center of this missing ramp stone is 35.3 inches. 

F.g. 53. North or Lower end of GraiKl Gallery, showing - entrance of 
Ascending- Passage, west side. In line with perpendicular wall is the firs) 
ramp stone. The second has been torn away to give entrance to Well; 
remaining rampstones are continuous, forming the west bench, showing 
the ramp holes dotted. The (l :lack) cavities under the ramps, are "little 
graves" in the side of the junction of Gr. Gallery and passage to Queen's 
Chamber. A, Masonry. 

The well descends irregularly to the long descending pas- 
sage, uniting with the latter not far from the subterra- 
nean chamber. 

For about 26 feet the well is perpendicular, (after a 
ragged detour from the missing ramp hole). It then 


becomes irregular again for 32.5 feet, when it opens out 
into an excavation, called the Grotto; from thence, down 
to the subterranean passage it is irregular. The perpen- 
dicular, finished portion is a mystery — why should it be 
thus at such a place? 

The removal of the ramp stone is always a mystery — 
and one to which there appears no reasonable solution. 
It was taken out with great force. So much so that the 
hard rock was split, portions still adhering to the remain- 
ing stones, on either side. Had it been removed by those 
on the inside after dropping the portcullis, it does not at 
once appear reasonable to suppose that they would put 
the stone in at all. During all the time the well was exca- 
vating, if built contemporaneous to the other passages, 
the ramp stone could either have been left out, or very 
smoothly and skillfully removed. Again, the finished, 
perpendicular portions shows that lime was taken for the 

There is one theory that comes to mind: Cheops builds 
the Pyramid for the scientific and religious objects indi- 
cated by symbolisms. He also places a tomb chamber 
deeply under it. But when death approaches, he finds 
that the universal hatred of the priests will not allow 
him to rest in peace. So he keeps his men secretly at 
work at the "well," hastens its completion, and is carried 
by his faithful friends after death to the upper chamber. 
They then spring the mighty portcullis and creep out 
through the well. 

This appears like very childish sophistry. Any one who 
sought his remains in the lower chamber could probably 
mount the same well by which the friends descended. To 
spring the portcullis was as easy a matter from the out- 
side as from the inside — and save the trouble of making 


the well. There was also a heavy stone cemented in 
front of the portcullis to disguise its presence. What 
was the need (with the Well, and the masonry to hide the 
passage) of a portcullis at all? What is the meaning of 
a 26-foot portion being finished, ragged at both extremi- 
ties? The key to this Well is not yet in our hands. 

The height of the Grand Gallery is 339.5 inches, and 
the roof is formed of 36 overlapping stones. (Fig. 85). Its 
length, to a certain step, 36 inches high, is 1812.986 in. 
(Fig. 51, G). But the length of the Grand Gallery floor 
to where the line of the ramps meet the south or upper 
end of the Gallery is 1881^. 6 inches. We generally speak 
of the Grand Gallery as 7 881 inches long. Width 82.12 
inches. Length on the graven line, 1878.4 inches. 


Along the line where the floors of the ramps or benches 
meet the side walls of the Gallery, there are placed 28 
little excavations on one side and 26 on the other. What 
they are for is a riddle. A few strange reasons have been 
supposed, but not one that is worthy an instant's atten- 
tion. If not symbolical, as hereafter represented — then 
they were doubtless placed there by "chance" among the 
numberless "coincidences" some people imagine. The 
little mortices are called "ramp holes." 

Height, 36 inches. Horizontal, to south wall, 61 inches. 
The upper end of the Grand Gallery is very peculiar in 
its structure. Before reaching the south wall, progress is 
interrupted by the vertical step, just referred to, which 
rises above the ramps. (Figs. 51, 54, 58, *72, 85). This sin- 
gular step is 36 in. high, and 61 in. on its horizontal. It 
changes direction from the angle of the gallery, and its 
continuation through the masonry leads into the Ante- 
chamber. No structural requirement calls for this step, 



and as the building, or passage, floor., roof, or walls did 
not demand it, its object must have beon either symbolic 
or aBsthetic. The latter it certainly is not; for a 3- foot 
step, interrupting the plan of construction, can hardly be 
called a thing of beauty? This step also hides or 
obscures one of the ramp holes — the 28th. 

Another singular feature is that the south or upper end 
wall is not vertical. It "impends" or leans inward at an 
angle of 1°, so that the Gallery is longer in the center than 
on the ceiling. This also is required neither for beauty 
nor strength. This impending wall is also formed of over- 
lapping stones, there of them, between the 
step and the roof. 

F g. 54. D, Masonry. A, Upper end of Grand Gallery, dotted lines rep- 
resenting- overhanging tiers of masonry on the side. B, Passage to Ante- 
chamber. C, Antechamber. E, Point where Floor of Gallery would inter- 
sect the passage floor. F, Corner of the Step. Dotted lines at head of 
Gallery represents the ''impend" of the wall. East side. 

The passage out of the Grand Gallery to the next room, 
the Antechamber, is 52.17 inches, or from beginning of 
great step, is 112.17 inches. It is 43.7 inches high, 41.4 



wide. It opens into a room known as the Antechamber, a 
sort of waiting room to the King's Chamber beyond. The 
Antechamber is 116.26 inches long, 149.3 inches high, 
and 62.5 inches wide. It is thus, except in height, an 
enlargement of the passage. Its construction is very 

On either side of the Antechamber, as represented in 
Fig. 58 B, are four grooves, separated by small, narrow 

Fig. 56. Pig. 57. 

Fig. 55. Horizontal section of Antechamber. Black portions on th" 
sides are the grooved sections. Dotted line is the entrance, and opposil ■ 
are the four grooves over the exit, seen in 57. The change in shaded 
lines indicates the change from limestone to granite. 

Fig. 56. Masonry of floor of Antechamber, showing elevated stone, 
and change from limestone to granite. 

Fig. 57. South end of Antechamber, showing four grooves over the 
passage to Bang's Chamber. 

reliefs or pilasters. These grooves extend up the sides 
three-fourths of the height. They, and the ridges between 
them, constitute a sort of wainscoting of granite, making 
the room several inches narrower. They appear very 
much as if made to slide portculli in. The portion divided 
off next to the north wall (58-K) is not grooved. In the 



second portion there is a portcullis, as it is called, though 
not resembling one in function or shape. (A). It is secure 
in its position, stretching across the room at the same 
height as the entrance passage, and consists of two slabs 
of stone, the upper and lower firmly joined. If it were 
dropped, then a person wou d have to climb over it, but 
the entrance would not be occluded, there being 21 inches 
between it and the north wall. The three grooves (B), 
are now nearly obliterated by the barbarians, who hack at 
them for specimens. On the surf ace of this portcullis, or 

Pig". 58. The Antechamber and head of Grand Gallery. C. Masonry. 
B, Grooves in side of antechamber. A, Leaf or Portcullis. D, Overlap- 
ping tiers of masonry in sides of Gallery. 

"Granite Leaf," as it is called, next the entrance, is a pro. 
jection, or relief sculpture. It is sometimes called an 
embossing, and very much resembles a crude "handle," 
like those placed at the end of heavy boxes, to lift. It is 
about 7x5 inches long and broad. The south wall also 
has four grooves, as in Fig. 57, extending from the 
entrance up^feo the ceiling. They are narrow, and divide 
the wall into five nearly equal ridges. The opening has 

Fig. 59. Perspective of Grand Gallery, section at extreme north and lower 
end. A, Masonry. B B, Floor, interrupted by the horizontal passage, S, to 
Queen's Chamber. C, Missing Rampstone, arrow leading into the Well. D, 
Ramps or Benches. E, South Wall. L, Step. N, to Antechamber, 



been considerably battered on its antechamber end. The 
north wall exhibits a rough, unfinished surface. It is 
composed of three massive stones. 

The material of which the walls and general mass of 
the Great Pyramid are composed is limestone. But at 
this point, in the antechamber, we come in contact with a 
change for granite. This change appears to be methodi- 
cal, and made with design to represent something— though 
what, is thus far undiscoverable. In the antechamber the 
floor is slightly raised for the distance of a single floorstone, 
(Fig. 56) where the granite begins. We do not keep a 
record of the changes from limestone to granite in the 

i ! 


e iling 

1 5 

i \ 





3 A 


Floor Stones. 

Fig-. 60. North wall of the King's Chamber, showing the stones forming 
the five tiers. Junction of floor and ceiling stones shown. A, Entrance 
from Antechamber. B, Northern air channel. 

construction, but they may be ascertained by following 
Prof. Smyth's three volumes on "Life and Work at the 
Great Pyramid." 

Length, 412.14; Breadth, 306.1; Height, 229.90— Pyramid inches. 

The passage out of the Antechamber is a continuation 


of that into it. It is 100 inches in length, 43.7 in height, 
and 41.4 in breadth. It opens into the King's Chamber, 
a large and lofty room, apparently the principal interior 
construction of the Pyramid. It is 412.13 inches in 
length (east and west) 206.3 in breadth, north and south, 
and 230.1 high (Pyramid inches). Somewhat unlike the 
preceding room, it has no system of peculiar ridges, 
grooves or wainscots to vary the walls. They were very 
plain, smooth, polished, and exquisitely jointed. Its floor 
is on the 50th course of masonry from the base of the 
Pyramid. Its entrance is in the extreme lower, eastern 
corner of the north wall, as shown in Fig. 60. The sur- 
face of the walls and floors are very much marred by 
blows, scratches, marks and excavations. There are five 
tiers of masonry in the four sides, the upper tier being 
composed of very large, broad stones, the lower very 
much smaller. There are nine long stones stretching over 
it to form the ceiling, two of them at the extreme sides 
being only partially visible, as they extend over and 
beyond into the masonry of the sides. The joints, courses, 
and tiers of the King's Chamber have been a study, and 
enter largely into its mathematical relations to the whole. 

On the north and south walls are two openings — the 
two air holes for ventilation, orifices that extend from the 
King's Chamber to the outer world, as seen in Fig. 43. 
That on the north wall is only about 8x5 inches, while 
that on the south is near 1*7x23 inches. The latter, how- 
ever, farther within the masonry narrows down to about 
the/proportions of the other. The north air or vent hole 
is 233 feet long, and rises at an angle of 33° 42'. The 
south hole is 174.25 feet long and rises at an angle of 45°. 

Says Bonwick, "The King's Chamber is in spite of the 
spoliations, a beautiful, granite- walled apartment. Noble 
slabs of granite, 20 feet 'high, [the room not the slabs.] 


admirably joined, line the sides. The roof is flat. There 
is no furniture but the ever mysterious Coffer or Sarcoph- 
agus." Greaves calls it a "rich and spacious chamber, in 
which art may seem to have contended with nature." It 
has been much mutilated in later years. 


Length, outside, 90 inches; inside, 77.93 inches. 
Breadth, outside, 38.65 inches; inside, 26.73 inches. 
Height, 41.17 inches; Depth, 34.34 inches. 

This is a hollow rock. It is very finely dressed, polished 
and excavated. Its outside length, (mean of variations 
of about .5-inch on the sides), 90.01 inches. Mean height, 
41.17 inches; mean breadth, 38.65 inches. The west side 
and lower surface -are slightly curved. Average thickness 
of sides, 5.99 inches; of bottom, 6.92 inches. It lies near 
the west side of the room, and is slightly removed from 
a north and south position. 

This Coffer is made of porphory rock. Its purpose is 
a matter of contention. M. Jomard and others have con- 
sidered it too small for a sarcophagus, while many have 
thought it too large. Its history is appealed to in vain! 
There is no record worth noting, of its ever containing a 
corpse. And yet there are sarcophagi in other "tombs" 
and pyramids of Egypt which resemble this Coffer. But 
the same may be said of the entire pyramids. The later 
structures may have mistaken the primary mission of the 
first in every aspect— or, it may have had its metric prop- 
erties added to its functions as a coffin. If other pyra- 
mids, with their sarcophagi, were built first, and the kings 
of Egypt were in the habit of erecting such structures 
for burial, then, probably part of the mission of the Pyr- 
amid was to bury Cheops, with all its varied scientific 
accompaniments added thereto. But if the Great Pyra- 
mid were built first, by an invading shepherd race, and 


the inferior giants about it were subsequent imitations, 
then was the monarch of mounds built primarily for sci- 
entific objects, and used as a tomb secondarily, if at all, 
and the imitators built in ignorance of the primary design. 

Still, even this conclusion is at fault when we are so 
sure that all the Pyramids of Ghizeh were built by the 
same race; but it will apply to the native Egyptian pyra- 
mids, scattered through the valley. 

One curious circumstance is notable, for it affects the 
theory that the use of the upper chamber, instead of the 
lower, for a tomb, was on account of fear of disturbance 
after death. That is — the coffer must have been built in 
while the Pyramid was rising, for it is larger than the 
passage! Thus we see that during all the years of the 
building of the upper half, this coffer was in its chamber; 
and if a tomb, would it have been secret to the army of 
laborers? Imagine the singular questioning of the mul- 
titude constructing that interior, with two large "burial 
chambers" in it when they had already run a shaft over 
3*70 feet, down into the living rock, for the same object! 
Many Arabian writers contend that the coffer did contain 
a body. But Diodorus* said: "Although these kings 
(Cheops and his brother) intended these for their tombs, 
yet it happened that neither of them were buried 
there. . . . For the people being exasperated against 
them by reason of the toilsomeness of these works, and 
their cruelty and oppression, threatened to tear in pieces 
their dead bodies, and with ignominy to throw them out 
of their sepulchers: whereupon both of them dying, com- 
manded their friends privately to bury them in another 
place." — (Greaves) . 

There are evidences that it once had a lid, the remains 

*2,100 years after it was built. 400 after Herodotus— who could get no 
sure information from the Egyptians. 


of grooves and pin-holes having been found. It was 
made of very resonant material, a blow from a hammer 
making a loud reverberating report. The vandalism of 
modern "ladies and gentlemen" has nearly destroyed its 
perfection and beauty by knocking off specimens to orna- 
ment some metropolitan mantel among works of virtu. 
It should be a mark of disgrace in any parlor or cabinet to 
find such fragments, nicely labelled. We see the destiny 
of this noble urn which has rested since history's dawn 
in polished outline: It is to be scattered over the fire- 
places of civilized western hoodlums, who give the Arabs 
''baksheesh" for their blows upon its edges! 


The King's Chamber is not arched or vaulted. It has 
only a flat roof, and the immense mass of masonry above 
appears to be sustained by the great slabs of stone which 
stretch across. But in 1763 Mr. Davison discovered that 
directly over the chamber, and almost of equal size, was 
a broad low cavity left in the rock. The entrance to this 
room was through a forced passage from the extreme 
southeastern upper corner of Grand Gallery, as shown in 
upper left hand corner of Fig. 43. That this passage had 
been forced indicated that the chamber was for ages — 
and intended to be for years to come, a sealed room. In 
1837, Col. Vyse became convinced that there must be other 
resorts to remove superincumbent pressure than this 
single, flat room of equal size. He excavated upward 
along the east side of the ceiling, as seen in Fig. 61, and 
came successively to four more chambers; over the upper 
was a ridge roof of massive stones. The ceiling stones 
of the "Chambers of Construction," and King's Chamber 
are objects of interest. They are all of granite, even in 
the upper chamber. Those forming the ceiling of the 
King's Chamber are 326 inches long, 60 inches broad and 


80 inches high. In all the chambers, especially the King's, 
they are highly polished and beautifully joined. 

The most singular circumstance connected with the 
construction is that a design of some kind is evinced, 
beyond the matter of strength, in their method. The 
floor of each room is rough, unhewn. Yet the ceiling, 
which, as seen in Fig. 61, is not so high as the interven- 
ing stones themselves, is finely finished! In the second, 
third, fourth and upper chambers are quarry marks in 
hieroglyphs to guide the workmen in placing the stones. 

They are not cut in, but merely daubs of red paint. It 
appears to us that these five chambers, the last links of 
space, apparently, in the mighty monument, are of great 
significance, and deserve study; it is a matter of regret 
that so accurate an observer as Piazzi Smyth did not enter 
them, during his "Life and Work," and devote time to 
their thorough examination. 

The names of the chambers of construction, begin- 
ning with the lower, are Davison's, Wellington's, Nelson's, 
Arbuthnot's, and Campbell's. The upper, Col. Camp- 
bell's, has a "ridge" of "beautifully wrought" stones, 
which slope to each other at the peak. 

The passage from Grand Gallery to Davison's chamber 
is 24 feet 9 inches long. From floor of King's Chamber 
to peak of Col. Campbell's chamber is 69 feet 3 inches. 
Davison's chamber is from 2 feet 6 in. to 3 feet 6 in. in 
height; Wellington's 2 feet 2 to 3 feet S inches; Nelson's 
from 2 feet to 4 feet 10 inches; Arbuthnot's from 1 foot 
4 inches to 4 feet 5 inches; Campbell's from 5 feet 10 
inches to 8 feet 7 inches in height. 

Col. toward Vyse found a piece of iron in the masonry 
which was transferred to the British Museum. 

SSf'".- SSS-S,.. 


By the discovery of these Chambers of Construction a 
very important point was gained in the history of the 
Pyramid. Col. Howard Vyse, in 1837, discovered in the 
three upper chambers, on the faces of undressed stones, 
numerous hieroglyphics. They were red paint daubs, 
and demonstrated that there was a brush or pencil litera- 
ture as well as stone literature at that time. Among these 
hieroglyphs were the cartouches of King Chofo, (Suphis, 
Shufu, or Cheops,) and Non-Chofo, (ISJem-Shufu, or Sen- 
Suphis), the two brothers who are the supposed builders. 

These ovals or cartouches are represented on page 29, 
Figs. 7 and 8. 

The hidden hieroglyphs confirm the statement that the 
entire structure was free from stone hieroglyphs for some 
special reason. For these painted marks were undoubt- 
edly to guide the workmen, and left in chambers closed, 
it was supposed, forever from human eyes. This shows 
that the whole building once had them for the same ob- 
ject. Their complete removal indicates that there was a 
purpose in their erasure. Nor do we have to look far 
for a legitimate purpose. It appears reasonable that there 
could have been but one object — to distinguish it in de- 
sign, origin and theism from those monuments which do 
bear the imprint of the Egyptian chisel. 

It is in these Chambers of Construction that many have 
hoped for a "Key" to the Pyramid. In view of their 
position — being the last known cavities in the chain; and 
the upward pointing of the higher chamber; the finished 
ceiling and rough flooring, indicating some purpose — 
these chambers should receive most critical attention. On 
tin- other hand, they have been conspicuously neglected. 
Their examination may yield a revelation. Even the 
entire system of upper passages was discovered by a 
falling stone. How much may yet remain for research? 




The floor:— East and west, 205.6 inches; north and south, 226.4 inches. 
Height, to gable, 244.16; to roof, 182.19. Pyramid inches. 

There is a horizontal passage which leaves the ascend- 
ing, just a few inches within the Grand Gallery; it passes 
southward, vertical to the passage above. (S, Fig. 59.) Its 
oriffin is 23 inches from the north or lower end of the 
Grand Gallery; being, therefore, very near to the missing 
ramp-stone and entrance to well. (Fig. 59.) The King's 
Chamber, it will be remembered, is on the 50th course of 
masonry. The Queen's Chamber rests or floors upon the 
•J 5th. To start out upon the 25th course it would have 
to leave the passage beiow the lower wall of the Gallery. 
But it was designed to start within the Gallery, close to 

Looking eastward. 

Fig. 62. Section at beginning of the horizontal passage leading to the 
Queen's Chamber. C C, ascending passage. B C, plumb line from north 
wall of Grand Gallery. AF, sinking 4.7 inches to first horizontal level, 
afterwards sinking below line CE. Cto E, 19.9 inches. E to D, 6 inches. 

the Well. Hence, it leaves the ascending passage, as 
noted, within the Gallery and sinks by two steps to the 
required level. (Figs. 62-64.) It will be noticed by Figs. 
53 and 59 (where masonry, begins between the ascend- 


ing and horizontal passage) that the floor of the horizon- 
tal passage continues some distance before the roof begins 
— that is the floor of the Grand Gallery is cut away, so 
that a person in ascending the Gallery has to climb upon 
the ramps or benches to get up to the floor of the Gallery 
again . Or, they may by great exertion, if long limbed, 
put their feet in the "little graves," holes in side of this 
passage, and "straddle-step" up to the floor and climb 
upon it. 

The total of the horizontal passage, from the north 
wall of the Grand Gallery to the Queen's Chamber, is 
1519.4 inches. At 765 inches is a small cylindrical hole 
in the floor, 8 inches in diameter, and 3 inches deep. At 
945.3 is a hole in the middle of the floor, 4 inches in 
diameter and 4.5 deep. At 1122.5 inches, is a hole 3 inches 
in diameter, "filled with dirt," depth not given. At 1288 
inches a hole 2.5 in diameter. 

At 1303.3 from north wall of Gallery, is a sudden 
change of level in the passage, the roof remaining the 
same. The descent is about 20 inches. 

The height of this passage may average 46.5 inches, 
until the change of level is reached, when its mean is 68 
inches. Its width may be placed at 41.75 inches. The 
floor of this passage is, of course, limestone, of little 
value, and it is in an unfinished, unpolished condition. 

As we enter the Queen's Chamber from the long pas- 
sage, we find a large, ridge-roofed apartment, with walls 
of a fine species of white limestone. After visiting the 
Antechamber and King's Chamber, there is a feeling of 
disappointment in finding this room so inferior in finish. 
The floor is strewn with rubbish, the walls are less perfect, 
and there is a general impression produced that it is much 
inferior in appointments to the grander chambers above. 



It has more of the "dungeon" air about it. Its roof is 
ridged east and west, the massive stones passing one 
hundred inches into the masonry of the side walls. What 
is the object of this no one can explain. Though the 
walls have not the granitic finish of the other chambers, 
and the floor irregular, the limestone is of an unusually 
fine quality, and the wall joints are exceedingly close. 

The horizontal passage and the chamber walls exhibit 
a saline incrustation, as of nitre or salt. Although this 
condition is present in some of the smaller pyramids, it 

North WM_L 


Fig-. 63. Plane figure of east and north walls of Queen's Chamber 
Entrance at A. 

does not pertain to the other passages and chambers. It 
is an indication of moisture, though it may proceed from 
an abundance of efflorescent salt in the cement. 

The dimensions are as follows: East side, 205.6 inches; 
west side, 206 inches; south side, 22*7.2 inches; north side, 
226.5 inches. Mean of the two sides: — East and west, 
205.8; north and south, 225.7 inches. Mean of height, 
with ridge, 244.4 inches. Mean height, to ridge, 182.3 
inches. Excavations are numerous, and smoke inscrip- 
tions deface it. The construction of this chamber does 
not confirm the opinion of those who believe the Pyramid 


to have been built originally up to the 50th course only, 
(King's Chamber), and long afterward completed. For, 
were this so, the upper and not the lower chamber would 
have been poorly constructed. That this room and pas- 
sage, amid such perfect work, should be so imperfect, cer- 
tainly implies design; and a design beyond our ken, unless 
it be represented among the historical analogies hereafter 

In shape the Queen's chamber is a heptagon, having 
seven sides. The roof-sides are 226.7 inches long, same 
as sides, and 120.1 on the incline. 

Ridge roofs were rare occurrences in Egypt, even for 
support. The large Pyramid ceilings were flat. 

The most remarkable feature of the room is an immense 
niche in the east wall. It is a correct and workmanlike 
excavation, as represented in Figs. 63 and 64. Its height 
is 185.8 inches, and width at the base, 61.3 inches. It is 
composed of five sections of different widths, that next 
above the base being 52.3 inches wide; third section, 43.3 
inches; fourth section, 34.3, and the upper 25.3 inches. 

Its depth is nearly 41 inches, backed by masonry inci- 
dentally connected with its construction, which extends 
back into the Pyramid much farther than the strongest 
dungeon would require. At 38 inches above the floor, a 
shelf runs across the niche, above which a hole or excava- 
tion extends back into the masonry about 100 inches, all 
badly marred by recent excavations. The floor has been 
torn up, and the masonry dug out in several places, as 
seen in Fig. 64, probably for investigation, possibly in 
search for buried treasure. 

On the whole, this chamber is an anomaly. The fact 
of the incrustations is singular. Nor is the wonder less 
when we find no incrustations in the other passages. Alj 
walls above the "Falling Stone," were subject to the sam e 


influences, and both were closed by the same portcullis. 


"These azimuth trenches, then, are a sort of large 
open ditches, spread about here and there on the surface 
of the hill before the eastern face of the Great Pyramid; 
and not very noticeable, except for their relative angles in 
a horizontal plane; for these gave me the idea, at first 
sight, of being strangely similar to the dominant angles 
of the exterior of the Great Pyramid." — [Smyth). 

There remains one thing more in "Parts and Propor- 
tions." It is supposed that a hidden chamber exists in 
the Pyramid, the discovery of which will throw light 
upon its meaning and mission. Among the various causes 
for this belief the symbolic is the greater. 

At one place on the Pyramid hill are a multitude of 
chips of Black Diorite rock. No tomb in the hill, or dis- 
covered portion of the Pyramid, is built of this stone ex- 
cepting a small place in the descending passage. Hence 
it is supposed the undiscovered chamber is lined with it. 

This supposition is not unreasonable when we remem- 
ber how closely the Pyramid itself was sealed, and how 
the entire upward channel was portcullised, and then the 
portcullis hidden by masonry. 

Fig. 65. 



Before taking up the analysis of the scientific and sym- 
bolic character of our subject there is a point worthy of 
close attention. It is possible, even extremely probable, 
that in some manner the Great Pyramid was built as 
a tomb. But a tomb could have been built with great ele- 
gance of design or with great simplicity, and still had no 
deviations from a complete, harm mious, and distinct 
plan. However crude in art or barbaric the artist — however 
lithe in design or cumbrous in conception, the effort is 
always to symmetry. The failure to attain symmetry 
may be complete. The curved lines may be monstrosities, 
the angles unfortunate — but the effort is there, and the 
proportion, also, though perhaps a very poor one. Thus, if 
the builders of the Pyramid designed a tomb with various 
chambers, and a heavy stone coffin, and finely built pas- 
sages, it was not a difficult matter to build it. Labor an<f 
stone were in plenty. That they should have built such 
a tomb in certain measurements which represented many 
of the more modern and sublime problems in mathematics 
was singular, very singular. Yet the student is forced to 
admit that a few relations of feet to figures may have been 
coincidences. The universality reduces the probability, 
but still the possibility remains. Also, with regard to cer- 
tain linings on the walls at such distances as would repre- 
sent dates, or with proportions of size which give astro- 
nomical truths, they may all have been coincidental. 


There must have been a motive in these relations. The 
very "starting point;" that is, the taking accidentally of a 
certain angle as the basic proportion, could not induce 
the subsequent measurements. No one will believe it did 
so happen. Driven by accumulation of better evidence 
than has developed the doctrine of evolution, other and 
hasty hypotheses are assumed, (vide, Prof. Proctor.) 

This coincidental theory is advanced by a few Pyramid 
students. Their number is daily lessening. It is true 
that the coincidental may, amid a thousand million 
chances, have ruled the progress of its erection in the 
purely figurative expression of its volume and contents. 

But in morphology there are no coincidences. There 
must be a motive. Not a leaf figures its microscopic 
shape but from motive in a physical sense. A child can- 
not whittle a stick without having in mind some contour 
to produce. There are parts of the mighty Pyramid 
which never could have been introduced without a motive. 

AVe pass by the angles, the star angles of descent and 
ascent — the portcullis, its singular sealing — the well, its 
partly finished condition, etc. The benches or ramps, the 
ramp holes, the step, the raised stone in the floor, the 
unfinished and finished walls, the singular antechamber, 
etc., etc. Many of these are actual obstacles. Could these 
"obstacles" be placed there without a motive? And if a 
motive, what could it have been but to represent some- 
thing for whosoever unearthed it in future ages? Take 
the granite leaf in the Antechamber. It is a couple of 
heavy strips, finely joined, stretched across a room just 
where it could possibly have no architectural object. It 
has been called a portcullis. The foolishness thereof 
is inexpressible. If it could slide, it would interrupt no 
passage. But it cannot; it rests at either end, in the 


sides of the room, on good solid granite. And what of 
the relief sculpture like a handle, on it? A 7 inch handle 
in the Pyramid? We might mention the slight elevation 
so cleanly cut in floor of Antechamber, and other equally 
singular features. These all point to a motive, and place 
the interior construction of the Pyramid far beyond the 
coincidental, for these elements are only factors in a 
grand whole, and whatever may have been the motive for 
the great step, was the motive also for the thousand sing- 
ular proportions which a few hardy disputants relegate to 
the coincidental. 

It is not claimed that the motive of the building is yet 
discovered, but multitudes of the details have been appro- 
priated, and those, in a measure, we will try to represent. 

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It is confidently asserted that the Channels of the 
Groat Pyramid represent the important events in history; 
but more particularly the varied course of that great 
stream of theosophy which originated in the earliest 
epoch, and subsequently became the mission of the Jew- 
ish race — to perpetuate until the time of Jesus Christ. 

We now come to the most remarkable series of scien- 
tific demonstrations of a religious proposition that the 
philosopher has ever pondered over. Science has thus 
been made the exponent of religion. Never has proph- 
ecy held the reigns over positive philosophy, as she thus 
holds mathematics as a factor in the demonstration of the 
religious symbolism of the Pyramid. 

The great proposition upon which the Chronology of 
the Pyramid is based, and also upon which the apparent 
prophecy depends, is that an inch represents a year. This 
is an important proposition. Of course this foundation, 
alone, would not stand unless sustained by very strong 
evidence — such as appeals directly to the mathematical 
rather than the speculative faculty; and having a reasona- 
ble demonstration that the inch does represent one year, 
many flaws in a chain of events will not destroy the prob- 
able involution of the principle. 

The basis for the inch-year proposition is startling in 

its distinctness. 

The longest measurement in the Pyramid, in inches, 




is equal to the longest measurement of time in the uni- 
verse, as known to us. The longest measurement is the 
diagonal of the base. The base surface is a square 
having 9131 inches on a side, and its diagonal is conse- 
quently 12,913.34 inches. There are two of these diag- 
onals, and together they make exactly 25,826.68 inches. 
(Fig. 70.) 

Is there any thing remarkable in this number? There 
are two years known in the measurement of time. One, 
the solar year, is the revolution of the earth about the 

Fig. 70. 

Fig. 69. A, B, C, Portion of the Pyramid above floor of King's Chamber. 
A, H, H, The entire Pyramid. A, D, Vertical, which is a ralius of 4110.5 
inches. Continued to E is the diameter of the circle F, 25,836.68 inches in 
circumference. C, D, is also one side of a square, (6456.75 inches), the lour 
Bides of which equal 25,826.68 Inches. 

Fig. 70. Square base of the Pyramid, 9131 inches on a side, and two diag- 
onals of 12913.84 inches each. 

sun. It takes 365.242 days for the circuit. But the long- 
est measurement of time known to us is the "Precessional 
Cycle." This is the revolution of the whole starry host 
about an apparent axis, the star Alcyone, of the Group 
Pleiades. This is observed by the fact that the stars rise 
about 50 seconds later, each year. For this complete cir- 
cuit of the heavens, (apparently around Alcyone), and 
the close of the cycle, it requires just 25,826.68 yeavs. Sin- 
gular that the longest linear agrees with the iongest circle 


time — counting inches for years? One relation of this 
kind may be coincidental. In this problem just given 
we present the evidence of the dominant or principal 
square in the Pyramid, its two diagonals giving the above 
result; each diagonal is, of course, the hypothenuse of 
a triangle, and the result may be called the demonstration 
of the triangle. 

Jas. French says: — "We would look, however, for the 
demonstration of a circle, in a problem involving the rev- 
olution of the heavens." On the level of the King's 
Chamber, at the 50th course of masonry, this is secured. 

It will hereafter appear that this level is an important 
point for measurements, giving ample reason for looking 
to it for the solution of such a problem. The discovery 
was made by Prof. Hamilton L. Smith, of Geneva, N. Y. 
The height of the Pyramid, above the level of the King's 
Chamber floor is 4110.5. This is the radius of a circle 
which is equal in measurement to the perimeter of the 
square at the point of truncation — that is, the surface of 
the base of a pyramid, cut off at the floor of the King's 
Chamber, (or the top surface of the truncated pyramid 
left when it is removed,) is 6456.67 on a side. 

We mention this to show that this radius (the 4110.5) is 
not taken hap-hazard, but of all radii presented, is the one 
to be chosen — the radius producing a circle equal to the 
base of a pyramid whose vertical it is. This radius of 
4110. 5 doubled for a diameter and multiplied by 3.14159 to 
get the circumference, = 25.827 inches, the length of the 
processional cycle. This is the demonstration of a circle. 

Now among the dominant measurements of the Pyra- 
mid, as already mentioned, is the level of the King's 
Chamber floor. On the outside of the square, each side 
gives 6456.67 inches. The four sides give, as before, 


the consummation of the greatest cycle of time — exactly 
25,826.68 years are required. Is it singular that the long- 
est linear of the Pyramid should agree with the circle of 
25.827 inches? This is the demonstration of the square. 

Thus the testimony of the triangle, circle and square 
evidences the time values of linear measures in the Pyra- 

There are other propositions which indicate that the 
inch may represent a year. For instance, a certain mark 
in the wall in the descending passage is at such a distance 
in inches from the north wall of the Grand Gallery, that 
412.55 inches (length of King's Chamber) added to it, will 
give the precessional number 25,82*7 in tenths. 

These demonstrations of the relation of length to time 
are greatly strengthened by the time data of other parts 
of the Pyramid, as given on another page. For instance, 
the base of the Pyramid is a number of which the days 
and the fraction of a day in a year is a factor together 
with the ancient sacred cubit. (365.242x25=9131). 

Supposing it to be fairly demonstrated that an inch 
linear represents a year, the next step is equally difficult 
to establish, — where shall the era of the world's history 
begin? And when the starting point is found, the great 
events of history must correspond exactly with it. Thus, 
with the above inch-year demonstrated; a reasonable start- 
ing point proposed; and the greatest events of time filled 
into the various niches, — it is not difficult to believe the 
chronological import of the Pyramid. If a person were 
called upon to state what event had modified and con- 
trolled the current of history, antecedent and subsequent, 
more than any other — be he theist or atheist — there could 
be but one answer. The world's hopes, as developed and 
"chrysalized" in every known religion, looked forward to a 



Prince in the religious sphere who was to redeem human- 
ity. Every war for 18 hundred years has turned upon 
the Birth of Christ, or been modified by the creed of bis 
Church. Every political intrigue, and every national con- 
stitution is shadowed by the cross or crescent, both of 
which proclaim Christ the "Greatest of Prophets." 

This is the one event which has universally modified 
history, both antecedent and subsequent. It may be either 
the Birth or Death of Christ. Whatever may be our 
belief in reference to the mission, the historical importance 
of his appearance is paramount. From a religious stand- 
point the Birth is recognized as the beginning of the era, 
from the fact of prophecy pointing to that time, and the 
"star in the east" then appearing. From a purely histori- 
cal standpoint its importance is testified by the beginning 
of a new chronology in Christendom. 

The point selected on general principles to represent 
the Birth of Christ is the north wall of the Grand Gallery. 
This selection is borne out, first, by its "fitting" other 
events and marks; and, second, by a peculiar astronom- 
ical proof. 

During the 25,82*7 years of the precessional cycle the 
pole star, or nearest pole star, changes. At or about the 
supposed date of the building of the Pyramid the pole 
star was a Draconis. This star, however, was 3°42' away 
from the real pole of the heavens, and the revolution of 
the earth about its axis would make it appear sometimes 
3°42' above, and again 3°42' below the real polar point, a 
difference of 7°24'. Inclination of the earth's axis being 
30°, the upper culmination of Draconis was 33°4l'24". 
Its lower culmination was 26° 18' 10". 

This lower culmination is very nearly the line of the 
descending passage. If a line be drawn as from C to S, 


(Fig. 66) from the base center of the Pyramid toward Dra- 
conis at its lower culmination, S, it will pass through the 
intersection of floor and north * all at the extreme lower 
and northern point of the Grand Gallery, (on a surface 
"elevation," as in the figure). Another line drawn from 
C to R, towards Draconis at its upper culmination will pass 
through the intersection of the roof and north or lower 
end of Grand Gallery. Now this may be taken as evi- 
dence that the beginning of the Grand Gallery was an 
important point in the Pyramid measures. But to make 
it still more important, or to indicate that this position of 
the Grand Gallery was not accidental, if we draw a line 
from C to the exact north pole of the heavens, parallel to 
the earth's inclination it will pass through the end of the 
Grand Gallery midway from floor to roof — and at this 

I point a long line, extending the full length of the Gallery 
is graven in the rock! This line is 1878.4 inches long; 
in relation to the symbolisms of the Gallery it may indi- 

, cate the beginning in 18*78 of the influence of the great 
i perihelia of planets in 1881, a most remarkable astronom- 
ical "landmark." 

This evidence of the importance of the North end of 
the Grand Gallery is not complete, however, until a line 
is drawn on the plate, from V to d> intersecting X and 
pointing to Alcyone, the star around which the precession- 
al cycle occurs. It will also intersect the graven line at 
the same point as the 30° line from C to P. 

Another prominent reason for taking the north wall of 
Gallery for Birth point of Christ is the following : 

From the north wall down to the ascending passage to 
junction of descending, up descending, a total distance 
of 2170.536 inches, is a line graven in the wall of the pas- 
sage, seen at e, Fig. 66. If the length of the King's Cham- 



berbe added to this (412.132 inches) the total is 2582.- 
668 inches, just one tenth of the precessional cycle. 

The great value of this incident is that the number 
25,826.68 could not bear a relation to so many measure- 
ments without design. 

Admitting that the location of zero in our chronology 
is at the north wall, and every inch is equal to one year, 
let us see what dates are recorded: 

Down ascending passage to floor junction of descend- 
ing passage, (Fig. VI), from H to I is 1291.2 inches, H 
to O is 1482, H to L 1542. From C, (the axis line of pas- 


Fig. 71. Measurements at the junction of the p. ssages from the north 
wall of Grand Gallery. C, A, B, P, E, Axis of ascending passage — which 
is shortened in the figure. Upper end of Portcullis as at present chipped 

sage) to F is 1532.8, and to E is 1562.8 inches. We 
would take the dominant measure to* be the floor line 
from H to L. These are English inches excepting from H 
to L, which are Pyramid inches. 

Now these dates must be B. C, and 1542 is the sup- 
posed date of the "Burning Bush," at which time Moses 
received his first mission to take the children of Israel 
out of Egypt. 1482 is very near.y the date of the Exodus. 
Thence passing up the descending passage to the extreme 
point of the present floor — or to where it met the layer 


of rock which backed the casing stones, we reach 2527 
inches, which is represented as the "Dispersion," or the 
breaking up of the human race into different nations. 
Although these dates are far from being well established, 
and fall short of the demonstration given to the inch-year 
proposition, still one or two quite remarkable incidents 
have occurred in discovering them. 

Mr. Casey, a Pyramid student of great application, 
wrote to Prof. Smyth that if these passages were chrono- 
logical they certainly would have some mark to indicate 
its own erection. And as the date of the erection had 
been almost positively fixed at the beginning of the pre- 
cessional cycle in 2170 B. C, Mr. Casey added, "Accord- 
ing to this theory [inch-year] that date must be three or 
four hundred inches down inside the top or mouth of the 
entrance passage. Is there any mark at that point?" 

The Astronomer Royal hastened to his notes, computed 
the distance, and lo! There graven in the wall, on either 
side, was a line perpendicular to floor of passage, as seen 
in Fig. 48, 2170 inches from the Grand Gallery ! No one 
will be so foolish as to suppose chance engraved these 

The next feature after the birth of Christ, or the north 
wall, is the Crucifixion, and just 33 inches up the Grand 
Gallery is the mouth of the Well, descending down into 
the Subterranean Chamber, or the grave. The analogy 
is carried still farther by the forcible removal of the ramp 
stone to get to the well, (p. 87). There are many features 
about this Gallery that are appropriated for symbols of the 
Christian dispensation. Some of them are exceedingly 
imaginative. The ramp holes being open, are designated 
as graves, open because Christ has opened them by his 
death. Against each ramp hole in the wall is set a finely 


cut stone of certain height. This is represented as sym- 
bolizing the flight of the soul. The size of the ramp 
holes is 7 by 8 inches. Seven is, in mystic numbers, the 
sign of the consummation, and eight refers to new life. 
The seven tiers of overlapping stones, either side, are re- 
ferred to the seven churches of Asia. The 36 roof-stones 
are supposed to represent the 36 months of Christ's min- 
istry, extended over the entire period of the Christian 
dispensation. Whatever the future of the Pyramid's 
chronology, at present it is a tangled thread, with a few 
gleams in the shape of dates which fit the inches, but re- 
moved apparently from connecting links * 

There are many strong analogies, but liable to error— 
which time alone can correct. The upper end of the 
Grand Gallery, with its three foot step, is made to yield 
a multitude of coincidences connected with the advance- 
ment of civilization, religion, and human freedom, during 
this latter day. Probably a most important part is the 
"impending" wall at the south end, (p. 90), and the nar- 
row passage beyond, which symbolizes the. closure of the 
present epoch, and the end of the age, though not the 
world.f The narrowness of the passage out of the Grand 
Gallery signifies great tribulation to fall upon the earth 
from 1881-2 to 1886. As this is the age of the great 
planetary perihelia, the probabilities of its correct proph- 
ecies are startling indeed. 


The length of the Grand Gallery on the graven line, is 
only ms^ years or incheydue to "impend" of 1° fFiff 

dates are com'S by tefai"\"fe„ by WhlCh a number of remarkable 


and the modern Spiritist* ?B?E^J£3Zg%g^ £&& 



72.) The Evangelical Alliance was formed at that time. 
The length of Grand Gallery on the floor, from the 
north wall to step at a, is 1812.986 inches. The base 
measure of the Pyramid, 9131.05 inches, divided by five* 
is equal to 1826.21, which reaches to R, on an imaginary 
continuation of floor line, r is 13.224 from a. This is 
also the distance from l to m. The full Gallery length, 



Fig. 72. Chronology of the Antechamb.r, etc. X, Grand Gallery. Y, 
Antechamber. Z, Passages. H, Plumb line showing the impend of south 
wall of Grand Gallery. 

This is also the length of the 
The coincidence indicates some 

passage e to l, or i to k. 
significance in the date. 

The north wall of the Antechamber is rough, unfinished. 
The other sides are finely finished. This indicates that 
the north wall is not used for the same purposes as the 
others, and we naturally take it to be chronologically mis- 
placed. This displacement is put at 55.74 inches, lor 
this reason: The entire length of the Antechamber is 
116.26 inches. From m to n, the first granite block, the 
floor is raised 3-10ths of an inch. The north wall being 
displaced, it is natural to connect this raised stone with its 
correction. From n to v is a distance of 55.74. If the 

♦Five is what is called a "Pyramid number." That is, five enters into its 
construction so often as to call attention thereto. It has five sides. The 
King's Chamber is on the 50th course of masonry; the Queen's is on the 
25th. The King's Chamber has five tiers of masonry in its walls, so placed 
with great precision. Various other instances are noted. 


south wall (v) be brought forward to n, the displaced wall 
will reach to s, 3.55 inches into the Gallery, leaving a w all 
over 3 inches thick, from s to where the Gallery wall 
would be if vertical, (the line p). 

We differ somewhat from this view. The granite ele- 
vation would extend to l if the explanation be — that the 
entire Antechamber was to be moved. The south wall 
would then also be roughened. The elevation indicates 
that both m and is have an import. The extreme end of 
the entrance passage (Fig. 48) is 2527 inch-years from 
the north wall. 55.74 inches added to it gives the preecs- 
sional cycle, within a small error, as obtained by 2170+ 
412.132, (p. 116). The latter equation shows that nearly i/ 
56 inches more are required in the channel line. From n 
to v supplies the deficiency. But how about the displaced 
wall? From l to m is 13 + inches. If the unfinished l 
were placed at m, against the elevation and the beginning 
of the granite, what displacements would it correct? It 
would put G over b, where it architecturally belongs! And 
chronologically it would bring a to r, in accordance with 
the note on page 122. 

Several recent works on chronology unite upon 4104 B. 
C. as the limit of man's history. The 6000 years of the 
Bible would then terminate in 1896. The Gallery floor to 
a gives 1812. 9S6 years, and computed to b, 1896.1785.* b 
is the north and south vertical center of the Pyramid. 

2582.668, the precessional cycle in tenths, added to the 
width of the King's Chamber, 206.066,=2788.734, the 
time set by Prof. Smyth, astronomically, for the Flood. 

25,826.68 inch-years, the great cycle, divided by 25, (the 
number of inches in a sacred cubit)=1033.0672; the 1000 
years are symbolical, and the odd 33.0672 equals 33 years, 
24 days, and 13 hours, the lime of Christ's ministry on 
earth. Single coincidences are slight evidences, but two 
distinct and separate coincidences in the same problem, 
pointing to the same conclusion, show that somewhere in 
the mazes is a thread connecting and corroborating them. ' 
Hence this relative coincidence has a value: 116.26 inch- 

*This measurement to A and from A to B has since been modified so 
that B represents 1894. 



years, (length of Antechamber) — 83.1925, (the inch -years 
from a to b) also =33.067+. 

The chronological import of the Queen's Chamber and 
its passage, is involved in even greater doubt than the 
upper channel. Some writers believe its rough, horizon- 
tal plane and rugged outline represents the career of the 
Jews, as distinct from Christendom. We will suggest 
that if the modern theoiy of identity between the lost ten 
tribes of Israel and the Anglo-Saxon race be true, that 
the diverging channels, which deviate at the symbol of 
the death of Christ, represent the history of both branches 
of the great Semitic race. 

It is objected that their history could not be contempo- 
raneously represented by passages which differ in length. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson, a prominent and careful Pyramid 
student, claims* that the horizontal passage goes 25.JPin. 
beyond the vertical axis which strikes the upper passage 

Fig. 73. 

at b, Fig. 72. But he also states that the year-space in 
the lower passage is 1.115 inches instead of one inch. We 
presume this is represented in Fig. 73. a b is a line on 
the incline. The same distance carried horizontally will 
extend to f, or c d becomes c e. Hence, the horizontal 
passage must be longer contemporaneously. 

But is it true that the inch year should be lengthened? 
If modified at all should it not be shorter on the horizon- 

*' Our Rest," June, 1879. A journal devoted to Pyramid study. Thomas 
Wilson, Publisher, Chicago. 


tal? Does not the horizontal inch extend .115 farther 
into a chronologically constructed whole Pyramid than 
the inclined inch — and therefore compass too much? On 
the other hand, is not the modification of the inch in any 
direction destructive of the very process by which the 
inch-year is established? This change of values also re- 
quires alteration of the time measures on the plane of the 
Antechamber. Still again, the vertical axis is not a fac- 
tor, justly, in this mensuration, when it passes many feet 
to the west without intersection. Even though it did 
intersect, its point on the passages is a matter of dispute 
between Jomard, Vyse, Wilkinson, Smyth, etc. It is pos- 
sible that the termination of the horizontal passage may 
represent the end of the Jewish wanderings, and restora- 
tion to their own land, Palestine.* 

The Flood. — If our race were nearly or quite des- 
troyed by a Flood in ages past, the Pyramid would cer- 
tainly record it. Prof. Smyth has reasoned from certain 
physical and astronomical data that the Flood occurred 
2800 B. C. Bishop Usher's Biblical chronology gives it 
2349 and other versions 3246 B.C. The mean of these* is 
2797. The Pyramid has a significant feature which points 
directly to this event. As already noticed, the entrance 
passage is too short by nearly 56 inches to chronicle the 
Great Year of the Pleiades. Then it is too short to denote 
the Flood. But for some reason the masonry at the outer 
end is doubled upon itself. (Fig. 48). This fold is 216 
inches, which added to the outer end, 2527, gives 2743 — 
the year of the Deluge — the beginning of the history of 
the present inhabitants of the earth. 


The entrance angle of the Great Pyramid is such that 
in the year 2170 B. C. the then North Star a Draconis, 

♦Recent political and meteorological conditions p^>int to this with start- 
ling distinctness : The close of the prophetic season of tribul tion; the 
decay of the Ottomin Empire; the imperial influence of D'Israeli on the 
Eastern Question ; the past due mortgages which the Rothchilds hold on 
Palestine, which the Turkish Government does not attempt to pay; the 
great change in the climate of Palestine, rainfalls being again abundant, 
and her vineyards blooming as of old— all are "signs" of an approaching 
change in Jewish history. 


shone directly down its dreary length — to the subterran- 
ean Chamber. No other light than the dim radiance of 
"The Dragon" ever penetrated it. At the same time 
2170 B. C, the axis star of the heavens, Alcyone, shone 
brightly over the apex. This occurs, as indicated before 
once in 25,826.68 years. Alcyone was the Greek "Hal- 
cyon," — happy star. As Alcyone was Queen of the Plei- 
ades, their "sweet influences" (Job) were peculiarly the 
Great Pyramid's benediction. This year, (2170 B. C), the 
year of the Pyramid's erection, confirmed by the graven 
line in descending passage, was known in astronomy as 
the "Great Year of the Pleiades." 

Sun's Distance. — The angle of the Pyramid's sides is 
6uch that for every nine inches of vertical the side meas- 
urement is 10. Also the diagonal of the base, given in 
Fig. 70, bears the same relation to the sides. Now the 
vertical height of the Pyramid, 5813 inches, multiplied 
by 10 raised to the 9th power equals 5,819,000,000,000 
inches, which are equal to 91,840,270 miles, the correct 
distance of the sun from the earth! 

Regarding this figure, there has been much discussion 
in the astronomical world. When the sun's distance 
from us was first given by astronomical computation, the 
received opinion of the savants was 95,000,000 miles, 
and the former estimate received no little ridicule. The 
latter number had even been increased by what were then 
recent calculations. A writer in "Our Rest" compends 
the history of "sun science" as follows: "The ancients 
estimated the distance of the sun from the earth at 10 
miles;* it was increased afterward to 10,000 miles; then 
it ran up to about 2,500,000; it then took another leap to 

•He might have said "the ancient Egyptians," for such was the case until 
more than a thousand years after the Pyramid was built. 


some 36,000,000; early in this century it reached 95,000- 
000 miles; then it decreased to 91,500,000 miles; again it 
increased to 92,500,000, [most astronomers put it at 95,- 
000,000]; now it is estimated at 91,840,000 miles." No 
common language will describe the thrill which elec- 
trified Pyramid students when the extensive and expensive 
observations recently taken of the "transit of Venus," — 
observed in every part of the world — gave the astound- 
ingly parallel result of 91,840,000 miles. This is just 240 
miles f i om the Pyramid estimate — with a parallax of 8.879 
seconds of a degree? ThenZes Mondes, of Paris, truly 
remarked, "The Great (Grande) Pyramid has conquered?" 

Not only does the Pyramid give the sun's distance, but 
it gives very precise data regarding the earth's size, spe- 
cific gravity, etc. The distance of the sun is obtained, 
as mentioned, by multiplying the vertical of the Pyramid 
by 10 raised to the 9th power. If this result, 91,840,270, 
be divided by twice the vertical of the Pyramid we get 
7,899.56, which in miles is the exact diameter of the 

Another astronomical feature is that the perimeter of 
the Pyramid's base is equal to the circumference of a 
circle whose diameter is also twice the vertical of the 
Pyramid. The circle's circumference is 36524 inches. 

9131, the number of inches on a side, multiplied, by 
four the number of sides, equals 36524, inches. Also, 
5831, the number of inches in the vertical, multiplied by 
two to get the diameter of a circle, and then multiplied 
by 3.14159 to get the circumference, equals 36524.12534. 
(Fig. 75.) 

The number is peculiar, for if the decimal be placed two 
points to the left it represents the number of days and 
fraction of a day required for one complete revolution of 



the earth about the sun=a year. The fraction is not exact, 
but a correction of one-tenth of an inch in the base side, 
or the diameter of the circle, (one- tenth of an inch in 
about 10000 inches) would remedy the defect — acd we are 
not that certain of the measurements given. The subject 
of days will come hereafter. 

The above two problems show the importance, in Pyra- 
mid measurements, of the circle whose radius is equal to 
the height of the Pyramid. The diameter of this circle 
into the earth-sun distance equals the earth's diameter. 
The circumference equals the number of days in a year 
with the decimal point placed two degrees to the right. 

Fig. 74. A, Pyramid. E, Equator. N, North polo. S, South pole. 

Under the head of astronomical relations come many 
singular cosmical facts. For instance, the Pyramid is 
placed on a certain parallel of latitude, and being there, 
is, of itself, sufficient evidence that it was so placed by 
design. A line drawn through the Great Pyramid, around 
the earth, parallel to the Equator, will divide the land 


surface ot the globe into two equal sections. It will 
be that parallel which covers more land surface than 
any other line which can be drawn. However slight this 
circumstance may appear at first glance, under the light 
of the other mathematical relations, and a fragment of 
history which has descended to us, it becomes the most 
important fact ever chronicled in the history of science, 
and may lead yet to most important discoveries. It is 
folly to intimate that the ancients, in general, understood 
the size and shape of earth. The common people cer- 
tainly did not. All written testimony, and all inscribed 
science, teaches the belief in flat surfaces, or imaginary 
supports for the eirth. But farther still, how could they 
have known of the vast territory of Australia and Aus- 
tralasia? Or the great Continent of America? Yet not 
only does the Pyramid's exact location monumentalize 
the existence of continent*, but it "weighs them in the 
balances" of some Almighty power — grander than in- 
stinct, more sublime than human intellect, more techn'cal 
and intricate than coincidence or clairvoyance! 

But some doubting one may suggest: "It was erected 
in Egypt; Ghizeh offered a suitable spot; it was coinci- 
dence — not that the Pyramid was built there, — but that 
the Egyptians were there!" True, if the Pyramid were 
built by the Egyptians, and were shorn of all these won- 
ders except such as an ignorant but warlike people could 
have produced. But the other wonders are there, and 
this is with them; and no historian can consistently state, 
although he may deem it possible, that the Egyptians 
built it. A wonderful testimony is given by Josephus, 
a writer who had the most intimate acquaintance with 
the pre-Hebraic theosophic history of any ancient writer. 
He makes an untrimmed assertion that the God fearing 


son's of Seth, seeing the knowledge which came to them 
from a divine source, dying out, built two monuments — 
one of brick and one of stone.* This stone monument 
was to contain the science of the universe. And of 
course, they built it at home where they could best labor 
and study — in Chaldea! Not so. For from some impulse 
— or guidance — or scientific knowledge, they went to that 
point on the earth's surface where it alone could unlock 
these mysteries of cosmos — to the "Siriad," or Egypt. 
"N~or could they have selected a less likely location from 
a human standpoint — for at that time Chaldea and Pales- 
tine were the Garden of the world, while Egypt was an 
oasis, peopled by descendants of Ham, the banished one 
— a race cursed in the Bible by terrible prophecies which 
have been fulfilled to the very letter. Put this statement 
of Josephus by the side of the tradition of Melchizedek 
and Philitis, and the history of Herodotus, and then ask, 
Who built the Pyramid? A foreign, or a native race? 
But to secure that parallel which divided the earth's 
land surface in halves was not the only object in building 
the monument in Egypt. As will be shown hereafter, the 
shape of the Pyramid gives us the quadrature of the circle. 
To do this required a certain shape and certain construc- 
tion, and that construction produced a certain Azimuthal 
indication of latitude. That indication was for the 30th 
parallel — the only parallel on the globe where the geo- 
metrical and astronomical relations would harmonize! 

*"They were the inventors of the peculiar sort of wisdom which is con- 
cerned with the heavenly bodies and thei; - order. And as Adam predicted 
that the world was to be destroyed at one time by wate.-, and another 
time by fire, they made two pillars, one of brick, and another of stone, so 
that if the brick pillar was [were] destroyed, the stone mi;ht remain and 
exhibit their discoveries to mankind. Now this stone pillar remains in the 
land of Siriad [Egypt) to this day."— (Josephus* Antiquities, Book 1, Sea 
2 .and 3.) 



We have not the space to work out this problem, but it 
indicates a God-like intelligence to have originally con- 
ceived it. The latitude of the Pyramid is now given as 
29°56'6", involving a possible error of 54" in the 1,296,- 
000" in the earth's circumference — possibly due to our 
faulty instrumentation, or possibly an azimuthal change 
in polar axis during 5,000 years. It will be farther 
noticed that the Pyramid axis (Fig.74) is about 53° from 
the Plane of the Heavens. Now we know the earth 
to be spheroidal in shape. Hence, is not the circumfer- 
ential difference from S to C less than C to A? There- 
fore, would 30° of latitude from the equatorial axis, on 
the earth's suiface represent 55.5° from the Plane of the 







/ a y 75-6. Quadrature of the circle having the Pyramid-height for a 
radius, and the perimeter of the base, both equalling 100 years. 

Heavens? We put the proposition plainly — that the 56" 
of deviation of the Pyramid's latitude from 30° is neither 
an error of instrumentation, nor a change in polar axis, 
but represents the spheroidal shape of the earth ! 

The Great Pyramid gives an approximate measurement 
of the earth's size in two ways. (The word "approximate" 
signifies fallibility in our measurements). 1st, by breadth: 
A band around the earth, the breadth of the Pyramid base, 
contains 100,000,000,000 square feet. The diameter*of 

*By a Pyramid Pi calculation. 


such a band is 500,946,700 inches. 2nd, by height: The 
height of the Pyramid multiplied by 270,000, divided by 
3.14159-f- to get diameter, gives us very nearly even 500,- 
000,000 inches, which is the polar diameter. The reason 
it is multiplied by 270,000 is that a circle equal to the 
area of the square base is 270,000 inches in circumference. 
It is plain tnat a mind who could provide for such vast 
mensuration understood the shape of the earth. 

Our space will not permit following the astronomical 
and cosmical features farther; but the mine is scarcely 
opened; while if the key to the Great Monument were in 
our possession, these disconnected items would doubtless 
take proper and harmonious place in a complete and reas- 
onable whole. 

Orientation. — The almost astronomically exact orien- 
tation of the Great Pyramid is indeed a remarkable fea- 
ture. Without knowledge of the earth's shape, or motions, 
and an exact line from Alcyone to Draconis, the east-and- 
west and north-and-south direction of the sides could not 
have been accomplished.* It never did occur in other 
ancient buildings. Glidden remarks that this feature 
indicates that they were familiar with the compass, but 
it is known that there the needle points several degrees 
west of the direct north pole. The sun's rising would 
have been of no avail, for it varied from equinox to equi- 
nox. Altogether, the placing the structure east and 
west correctly is corroboration of the astronomical date 
of the Pyramid's erection. 

The polar axis of the earth is generally accepted as 
500,000,000 Pyramid inches. Twice the height of the 
Pyramid in inches (5813) equals 11626, or just 100 times 
the length of the ante-chamber. Now multiply the polar 
diameter by this, and reduce to miles, and we have 91,745,- 

*Prof . Proctor to the contrary notwithstanding - . Approximate orienta- 
tion, as by the compass, and exact orientation, are not more at variance 
than are some of Prof. P.'e theories and the Pyramid facts. 


580 miles — very nearly the distance of the snn, and agree- 
ing with a strong report of a section of the observers of 
the recent transit of Venus. 


All of our readers are doubtless aware that the French 
Government seek the universal adoption of their metrical 
system for weights and measures. That is, that weights 
and measures should increase and. decrease by a scale of 
10, having the 1 -ten-millionth part of the earth's polar 
quadrant for a standard. (Fig. 74.) This was called A 

The principle involved in a decimal system is a good 
one, but the radical adoption of a system which would 
overturn the weights and measures of centuries would 
prove a national calamity. And still, were it necessary, 
to attain the actual benefits, to make a sacrifice, the world 
at large would undertake it. But the French system is 
based upon two remarkable and acknowledged errors — a 
theoretical, in taking for a standard a circle, which never 
has nor can be measured ; a practical blunder in measur- 
ing incorrectly the arc selected. 

The great difficulty in fixing unalterable weights and 
measures is to secure an unvarying standard — one which 
the heat and cold of climate, electric conditions, and the 
interference of man can never modify. Standards pre- 
served at the national capitals will shrink, corrode, or be 
modified by the changing current of politics. The .001 
of an inch may make little difference in one foot, but 
might put a man's farm under the sea! 

The French nation adopted as a standard the one ten- 
millionth of a quadrant of the earth's circumference on 
a meridian at Paris. This was a product of the "reign of 
reason," when a nude strumpet was set upon a throne as 
the intellectual deity — during the Revolution. The circle 


is an incommensurable, the arc not much better. But 
this arc describes a section of a spheroid! The effort to 
establish a standard on any curved line was unscientific. 
This new standard — 1 ten-millionth of the quadrant — was 
called a meter, and is 39.3'70'79-j- inches in length — that 
is, it is thus computed. It is too small, however, by 
l-3500th. They also had the misfortune, in producing a 
cognate standard of density, to get spurious metal mixed 
with the cube, and untold calculations are incorrect. It 
was meet product for the age that brought it forth. 

The Pyramid has a metric system sanctified by the ages, 
which can teach modern science much, and modern anti- 
quarians more. It is thoroughly scientific, of Biblical 
authority, and what is of great importance, agrees with 
the almost universal Anglo-Saxon large and small stand- 
ards. The word "Pyramid" is derived from "Pyr" divi- 
sion, and "met" ten, in the ancient language of Egypt, 
and of the Copts. The most remarkable defense that can 
be offered for its standard is that it is the only correct 
one possible to obtain — taken from the only straight line 
on or in the earth, one that is mathematically immoveable. 
This is the polar radius, or one-half the axis of revolu- 
tion — the polar axis. The polar diameter is reckoned at 
500,500,000 Anglo-Saxon (our own) inches, or 500,000,000 
Pyramid inches. 1-500,000,000 of this calculation equals 
1.001 of our inches, or 1 Pyr. inch. This very small dif- 
ference is due to the loss the English inch has sustained 
in 4000 years. This "inch universal," or "thumb breadth," 
is the Pyramid standard linear, and under some title is 
used by races scattered over the whole earth. It is a part 
of the natural system embracing the thumb, palm and 
arm. The "sacred cubit" of the Jews was 25 inches in 
length, a "cubit and a hand-breadth." 

This cubit, which often appears in the construction of 


the Pyramid, is 1 -ten-millionth of the earth's half axis 
of revolution,* or straight line used by the Pyramid to 
establish the inch. It is a cubit of most remarkably an- 
cient history, being known as the measure "given by Jeho- 
vah to the Jews" to build all the sacred appurtenances of 
worship, including the temple and contents. 

In the Pyramid it occurs prominently as follows: It is 
the measure of the top of the great niche in the Queen's 
Chamber, (p.l06).f In order to ascertain the number of 
days in a year, the base line is divided by that number 
which is a factor with 365.242, — the cubit of 25 inches. 
The embossing on the granite portcullis in antechamber, 
is supposed to be a cubit divided by live, being five inches 
long. Its height, from granite leaf, is one-fifth of its 
breadth or just one-inch. 

The length of the King's Chamber is 412.132 inches. 
Now 412.132 cubits is the diameter of a circle whose area 
equals the square base of the Pyramid, which is 365.242 
cubits on a side; and, on the other hand, a square having 
412.132 cubits on a side is of equal area to a circle whose 
radius is equal to the height of the Pyramid, 232.520 
cubits. Does any one imagine that these relations, which 
can be greatly extended — correct to a fraction — could 
occur if this cubit were not involved in the construction? 

It may be of note that not only is the sacred cubit em- 
ployed, and the inch which has come down to us from a 
remote antiquity, but the coffer in the King's Chamber is 
of exactly the same cubical capacity as the "Ark of the 
Covenant," of the Hebrews. This Coffer is a most 
wonderful object. It is the great standard, of which the 
modern British Quarter measure is just one-fourth! Eng- 
lish people who measure a quarter of wheat do not real- 
ize that their standard chauldron is in the Pyramid! Is 

*See Fig. 74. From D to E is the French quadrant standard^ From 
E to center is the Pyramid "half-axis of revolution.,' 
tThe .3 fraction is partially due to English in., and a m ean of variations. 



there any chance in the construction of this coffer? Its 
internal space has precisely the same cubical volume as 
its solid sides and bottom; the length of its sides consti- 
tute the circumference of a circle, the diameter of which 
is its height; it is just "one-fiftieth" the size of the cham- 
ber in which it is enclosed! The identity in capacity 
with the Ark of the Covenant (Tabernacle and Temple) 
confirms the theory of the use of the "sacred" cubit. The 
cubits of Memphis, Palestine, Babylon, Greece, etc., were 
very different measures. No other building in Egypt has 
been built by the sacred standard. Dr. Seiss emphasizes 

Fig - . 77. Measure standards. NP, 
North Pole. S P, South Pole. P«igel38. 

Fig. 78. Reliet sculpture on 
the granite bar or portcullis in 

the fact that Solomon's "molten sea," was 50 times the 
size of the ark, and hence just the size of the King's 

By these scattered evidences in the Pyramid, we know 
a certain system of linear measure has pervaded the social 
and commercial fabric since the human race originated. 
The inch has been referred back to the "thumb-breadth." 
Inches make a palm and palms a cubit. But even the 
cubit may now be discovered in this structure which ante- 
dates history. So modern measurement appears to have as 



ancient an origin, the coffer agreeing precisely with the 
Anglo-Saxon quarter. 

This ancient system being based on the only cosmical 
standard of value, the axis of the earth's rotation, why 
demoralize the commerce of the world to force upon the 
people a system whose linear is in error by computation, 
and whose metallic standard is in error by adulteration? 

Still worse were such a policy when it is exceedingly 
unpractical to "jump" measures by multiples of 10. Inas- 
far as the decimal system can be fairly used the Pyramid 
system contains it. A decimal scale to be of use must 
break up into convenient fractions. Our money is only 
partially decimal. The half-dime, quarter-dollar, 3-cent- 
piece, quarter eagle, etc., illustrate this. The foot of 12 
inches may be changed to 10. But the inch can never be 
taken away. And with the foot of 10 inches, what more 
natural division next than the quarter of a hundred, "25," 
— a cubit. Then 100 cubits now equal an "acre-side," 
or one side of a British acre. In weight measure the 
great scientific standard for mean specific gravity, is 
exactly the l-2500th part of the cubical contents of the 
Coffer, and gives us a modern "pint" — a Pyramid pound, 
as it is "the world around." This pound divides evenly 
by 10 for grains, and increases by decimal multiples and 
four for chaldrons, tons, etc. Then if the national stan- 
dard must be simplified, let it be by those slight changes 
which will conform it to that great natural and mathe- 
matical standard which was established before the dawn 
of history^. 

Before passing this topic, we add a few problems from 
a pamphlet just sent us by its Author, an accomplished 
Civil Engineer,* illustrating the relation of a cubit to the 

*"The French Metric System," by Charles Latimer, Cleveland, Ohio. For 
sale by C. H. Jones & Co., 188 Monroe St., Chicago. 


Pyramid: The total length of the Antechamber floor is 
116.26 inches. It is the diameter of a circle whose cir- 
cumference is 365 342j = to the days and fraction of a 
day in a year. Multiplied by a cubit it equals 9131 inches, 
the length of a base side of the Pyramid. 

The 116.26 multiplied by 50, (a double cubit, and the 
course of masonry upon which it rests), = the vertical of 
the Pyramid, 5813. But 116.26 multiplied by 2, (the 50 
being 2 cubits), = the vertical in cubits. 

The granite floor of the Antechamber is 103.033 inches 
long. It goes into the breadth of the King's Chamber 
twice, exactly; into its length four times, and its height 
2.236 times — which is the square root of 5. The sum of 
the squares of these numbers, (4, 16 and 5), is 25, the sac- 
red cubit. Into the diagonal of the end of the King's 
Chamber this 103.033 will go 3 times; into the floor diag- 
onal 4.472 times, into the side diagonal 4.582 times. The 
sum of the squares of these numbers is the double cubit. 

The length of the King's Chamber, 412.132 inches, is 
the diameter, in cubits, of a circle whose area is equal to 
a square the size of the base of the Pyramid. 

A square having 412.132 cubits for the length of a side 
is equal in area to a circle whose radius is equal to the 
Pyramid's height. Thus it is demonstrated that a known 
relation between the Chambers and the structure is by 
means of an x standard, and that se=25. 


The entire mathematical problem involved in the con- 
struction of the Great Pyramid is not yet evolved. The 
chronological analogies, and the astronomical features, 
are only disconnected wonders which indicate the pres- 
ence of a precise and consistent plan upon which the 
whole structure was erected. Angulation, and men sura- 


ation, section, the properties of the circle, square, triangle* 
ellipsis, and parabola; the cognate forms of sphere, cube, 
pyramid, spheroid, and cone, were apparently understood 
and manipulated by the designer. The astronomical 
elements may extend far beyond our present comprehen- 
sion, as we only stand upon the threshold with a few of 
the plainer problems in hand. 

It is among the most remarkable circumstances, that 
the first discovery of profound mathematical import in 
the Pyramid was the sudden interpretation of what is 
known as the Tf proposition, (Greek letter Pi). This is 
the substance of the Quadrature of the Circle, represented 
by the formula: 

Diameter : Circumference : : 1 : 3.14159-f-or Pi. 

The formula is the best means of finding the side of a 
square which is of nearly equal area to a circle. The exact 
operation which will reduce a circle to a square of equal 
area has never been found. 

The Quadrature of the Circle, is one of the great prob- 
lems associated with mathematics in all ages. It is not, 
as some have supposed, in recent Pyramid literature, the 
reduction of a circle to a square form of equal perimeter, 
but its reduction to a square of equal area. The circle 
is a polygon, with an infinite number of sides, and 
mathematics can never measure a curved line any nearer 
than to compute for a number of sides to any circle until 
they are so small that the error is unimportant. Hence, 
the relation of a circle to a square is the computation of 
the area of a polygon; but this polygon has an unlimited 
number of sides. The formula for computation may be 
(1) to multiply the square of the radius by the proportion 
of the diameter to the circumference, or (2) multiply the 
radius by the circumferenoe for a rectangle, and the 


square root of the half of it will give one side of a square 
of equal area to the circle. Both of these formula} 
require the circumference, or proportion of circumference 
to the diameter. Therefore, the great difficulty in the 
way is to secure this proportion. And in mathematics 
it is always known as the Pi proposition or proportion. 

Archimedes proved that the relation of the diameter 
to the circumference was nearly that of 1 to 3, using a 
polygon of 96 sides. Ludolph Von Ceulen computed a 
circle having 36,893,488,147,419,103,232 sides, and the 
fraction he secured thereby was: 

Diameter : Circumference :: 1 : 3.14159265358979323 


The error in this computation is so small that in a cir- 
cle whose radius is 250,000 times the distance of the 
earth from the sun, the correction would be less than the 
millionth of the width of a human hair. 

Does the Pyramid represent this Pi proposition? It 
does. Do other Egyptian monuments represent it? No, 
not one. Could not this peculiar shape be coincidence? 
Once among a thousand million chances, but not a dozen 
times in one monument! 

Fig. 79 represents the two prominent problems involved. 
The square ABCD is the base, 9131.05 on a side. E to F 
is the vertical height. The vertical is to twice the base 
side as 1 is to Pi: 

5813 : 9131.05+2 :: 1 : 3.14159+. 

This is a very singular fact, but not all — for the perim- 
eter of the square base (9131) is also equal to the circum- 
ference of the circle having the height for a radius, and 
twice the height for a diameter. Thus: 

9131.05 X 4 (No. sides) = 36524.2 inches, or 100 years. 

11626(diam.) X 3.14159 = 36524.2 " " " 

"Who laid the corner stone upon 
it, when the morning stars sang to- 
gether, and all the Sons of God 
shouted for joy?" 

Job, Coptic Version. 




Fig. 79. 


Are not these numbers remarkable evolutions? Does 
not 36524.2 equal 100 years to an hour? There are 365. 
242 days in a year, and the decimal system with a move- 
able point, is used all through the Pyramid. Why, we 
hope to find hereafter. The diameter of the height-rad- 
ius circle, (11626), bears the same relation to the Ante- 
chamber, which is 116.26 long. Thus the base, the ver- 
tical, and the Antechamber are part of a Pi. proportion. 
Let us examine the King's Chamber. It is 412.132 inches 
long. The area of a circle of equal diameter, squared, 
gives the Pyramid's base. Again, the circuit of the side 
wall, (including all the granite, which dips below the 
floor for some reason) divided by its length, =Pi. There 
are many other illustrations. The number of cubic inches 
in the granite bar or portcullis, across the Antechamber, 
is Pi multiplied by 10,000. The Queen's Chamber is also 
full of this proportion. The exact outer end of the 
entrance passage is computed by a Pi proportion. Then 
the Coffer, the standard of measures for the world: Its 
height is to the side and end as 1 is to PL In fact, 3.14- 
159 seems to be impressed all over the structure. A circle 
with the breadth of the Coffer's base for its diameter, or 
a square with the depth of the coffer, = the area of a 
side divided by Pi. 

Why is it that this ever present proportion of Quadra- 
ture is so intimately connected with the days, and the 
year, and centuries? Is it possible that the great mystery 
of eternity is thus symbolized in a circle, andgeometrized 
to known properties? That the greatest circumference 
known to the earth — being infinitely incommensurable, 
like other circles — is thus crystalized in the lesser cir- 
cles, and transformed to equal squares? The revolution 
around the sun can never be exactly measured, then can 


a day? Is not this the secret of our faulty cycle, and does 
not the Pyramid, which embodies the Great Precessional 
Cycle of the Heavens, also concrete the infinitude of time 
into its mass, in these ever-recurring symbols of an infin- 
ite fraction? Even the precessional cycle is a circle — does 
the Pyramid really contain its true circumference? It is 
hoped that when the key is found to unlock the vast Mys- 
tery which lies shrouded in the sombre pile, the solution 
of Time's infinitude may appear — in the wonderful reve- 
lation of complete proportion, in the Universe of God. 
Nor do we believe the many laborious but unhappy souls 
who are figuring on the Quadrature of the Circle, Perpet- 
ual Motion, Trisection of the Triangle, etc., will ever 
enter their Aden until the Lethe of the Great Pyramid is 
bridged, and the "Stars shout for joy!" 


It appears that among the mathematical triumphs of 
the Pyramid is the fact that the largest cube which can 
be inscribed within it equals one-half its volume. This 
is a practical operation of a difficult problem, viz.: To 
produce a polygon which shall contain twice the volume 
of the largest inscriptible square. 

The figures we present are only proximate, leaving much 
for future study. It will be noticed that we have to sub- 
tract the cavities and the truncated summit, and that even 
then the result is 34 inches "out." But in the massive 
body of the Pyramid 17 inches on a side is a small error. 
The larger variations in the angle of inclination have a 
duplicative tendency to correct the error. 
Let A=the vertical, 5813 inches. 

" B=the inclined height, 7393 inches. 

" C=the length of a base side, 9131 inches. 

" E= elevation of passages and chambers ) 1,000,000 

*' F= " " truncation at summit j sq. in. 


Then, on a triangle by section of Pyramid, let 

(AxC-f-2)— (E+F) 

= x = 1-2 the surface in sq. in. 


V^~'=3568. And A— 3568 = 2245, distance from 
the inscribed square to apex, on the vertical. Then 

A : B :: 2245 : 2857 = to distance on incline from the 
apex to intersection of inscribed square. 

V 2857* — 2245 2 = 1767 X 2 = 3534 inches. 

The distance between the inclined sides at intersection 
of a square containing one-half the surface is therefore 
3534 inches. But the side of the square is 8568 inches, 
being an excess of 17 inches on a side. 

All studies of physics involve certain conditions to 
secure accuracy. Among these is an unalterable temper- 
ature. Absolute stability in regard to humidity, and pos- 
itive rest are also required. Thus, mass attraction, or 
specific gravity, can only be obtained approximately from 
want of these conditions. Deep cellars and vaults have 
been constructed in which to experiment. Standards of 
measure have suffered from these causes, metal standards 
expanding and shrinking w T ith the slightest variation in 
temperature. Micrometer scales detect it, and also deli- 
cate pyrometers. The difference of the one-thousandth 
of an inch in one yard may displace rivers and planets, in 
vast calculations. 

Near the Pyramid centre, in the King's Chamber, the 
conditions for stability are fulfilled. The Coffer, an appa- 
rent standard of measure and gravity, is surrounded by 
an atmosphere that never varies in temperature or hum- 
idity. Its approaches are narrow, and long. 180 feet 


of masonry protect it in the nearest approach to the sur- 
face. The Subterranean Chamber is as silent and change- 
less as the scientist can wish. Among the "coincidences" 
of the Pyramid is this provision for the preservation of 
the standards for future measures. The temperature is 
68° Fahrenheit. 


The precession of the equinoxes, the Great Cycle of 
time, 25,825.68 years in extent, is so prominently written 
in the Pyramid that no doubt of intention, on the part of 
the builder can be entertained. It furnishes very strong 
evidence that it was built at the beginning of the cycle, 
as marked in the passage, 2170 B.C. 

In numerous problems the year and century are given. 
The perimeter of the base=a century, or 36524.2 days. 
These "coincidences" extend to hours, minutes and sec- 
onds. They indisputably associate the Pi proposition 
with Time, and demonstrate the Inch Standard. 5813 X 
2Pi (or Pi X twice the radius, which is the diameter,) = 
36524.22 days, or 100 years. This number-^4 = 9131, the 
base side. It will be remembered, in this connection, 
that all evidence goes to show that the ancient Egyptians 
were ignorant of the true cycle at this time and a thou- 
sand centuries after. 

These are Pyramid "Facts" which the modern mathe- 
matician and historian will do well to ponder over. It 
involves a mystery of infinite relations to man and cosmos. 

The Grand Gallery is supposed by many to represent 
the subdivisions of the year. This wonderful hall seems 
devoted to Time, as it certainly is devoted to other than 
sepulchral objects, and hence the Pyramid student looks 
for peculiarities which can be referred to time divisions. 
With such examination it is said that the seven overlap- 


ping stones, or tiers of masonry in the sides represent the 
weeks of seven days. Ten and five are the Pyramid num- 
bers, seven rarely entering as a factor. However, the 
Grand Gallery is seven times as high as its entrance pas- 
sage. That part of the horizontal passage in the "cut 
away" of the Grand Gallery floor, (Fig. 53, p. 87), is one- 
seventh the whole length of the horizontal passage. The 
enlarged south end of the horizontal passage is also one- 
seventh of the entire length. The Queen's Chamber has 
seven sides. Mr. Smyth refers all these circumstances, 
as symbols, to the week of seven days. We do not see 
any application except in the case, possibly, of the over- 
lapping stones of the Grand Gallery. Still, it is difficult 
to see why the passage should be so low and narrow, 
and the Grand Gallery suddenly seven times higher with- 
out some symbolical import. Prof. Smyth likewise held 
the idea that the seven overlapping tiers on each side rep- 
resented two iceeks of months, or 14 months of 26 days 
to the year. And this he regarded as a more reasonable 
division than 12 months, as it leaves but one day to be 
added to 26 days at the end of the year, and two on leap 
years. At present we add five or six days to one-twelfth 
of 360, or 30, the even length of our months. Then to 
indicate the imperfections of the months there are 28 ramp 
holes on one side and 26 on the other; and the two last — 
at upper end of Grand Gallery, extend under the wall, as 
if referring the observer to the Antechamber. In the 
Antechamber we find on the sides four ridges; three 
curved, or hollowed, and one full and straight. 

These are supposed to represent the three imperfect 
years, and the fourth perfect. Some other refinements 
are added to this theory. On the whole, while it may 
contain the germs of a great truth, the evidences lack 


strength, and do not satisfy a demonstration by consider- 


The most remarkable development of the Great Pyra- 
mid is its relation to that religion which has descended 
to us through the Abrahamic race. Of course this rela- 
tion is not susceptible of "proof," but is capable of a 
very general elaboration. 

A just judgment of the value of the Biblical references 
and relations requires more than a passing knowledge of 
the language employed in the Bible. It must give not a 
little weight to the history of those races descended from 
Shem, but out of the Abrahamic succession; for, no 
doubt, the Caphtorim, the Canaanites in general, and the 
races under the mysterious Melchizedek, were part of the 
original monotheists. The peculiar history of the Pyr- 
amid's erection; its freedom from idolatrous hieroglyphs, 
present in every other tomb and temple in Egypt, and its 
marvelous problems — almost if not quite prophetic — also 
should be taken into account. Again, the order of the 
events related to each other, chronologically, deserve the 
careful consideration of the student: — The Flood, the 
settlement of Canaan and Egypt, the lives of the patri- 
archs, the origin of letters, the migration of Jacob's chil- 
dren and their Exodus, — the building, sealing and discov- 
ery of the Pyramid's interior — all make up a history in 
which there is a common theme and an identical theism. 
The prophetic nature of the chronology, contained in the 
passages, representing events in the history of the Hebrew 
race, is a strong indication of a theistic design on the part 
of the builder. The peculiar prominence of the "sacred 
cubit" is also worthy of notice, especially as this cubit 
(25 Pyramid inches) was not in use either by the Egyp- 


tians or Hebrews as a people. It was given of God, as 
witnessed by Ezekiel (Chap, xl), and consisted of a "cubit 
and a band breadth."* That this cubit is also the earth's 
semi-axis divided by lO 7 as represented by Herschel, is 
also a wonderful fact. The striking analogy in size and 
cubical contents between the Kind's Chamber and the 
"Holy of Holies" in the Temple, has been pointed out to 
us, but the analogy may not be direct and close enough 
to indicate an intention to duplicate the one in the other. 
* The probable size, (cubic contents), of the ark of the 
covenant presents a very striking analogy. The exterior 
of the ark, as given in the Bible, in inches, was 62.5 
inches long, 37.5 wide, and 37.5 deep. Xow allowing for 
the probable width of the sides and bottom and we have 
a mean of 71,247.5 cubic inches as the probable capacity, 
which corresponds with great exactness to the mean cof- 
fer capacity. It would also appear that four omers, or 
measures of fluid, equal one ark of dry measure, being 
thus parallel to the British quarter. Added to the many 
physical signs which point to a relation between the 
Pyramid and the theosophic history of the Hebrews, we 
find many references which point directly to this monu- 

Many parts of the Book of Job are supposed to refer 
to it, but to our mind not distinctly enough, unless the 
relation of a divine builder be established by other evi- 
dences. The most direct and incontrovertable reference 
is in the 19th Chapter of Isaiah, 19-20th verses: "In that 
day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the 
Land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof, to the 
Lord. And it shall be for a sign, and for a witness unto 
the Lord of Hosts in the Land of Egypt." 

*The irregular cubit of the ancients varied— in the neighborhood of 30 


It will be remembered, in reading this, that in Isaiah'fl 
time there was no admiration on the part of the Jews, 
for the land of Egypt — that each prophet in succession 
had poured out [vials of bitter prophetic denunciation 
against the Nile Valley, all of which have been i 
wonderfully fulfilled. It will be well, also, to bear in 
mind, that that very portion of the Pyramid which repre- 
sents the Jews shows them as a "cut off" from the ascen- 
ding passage and enlarged Grand Gallery, plodding along 
painfully, in a narrow, rough, unfinished passage, whose 
very mortar was mixed with salt, {vide Jewish customs, 
and the salting of the earth at destruction of Jerusalem). 

I< there any "pillar," or "altar." in Egypt to which this 
significant expression can refer? Egypt is free from 
monotheistic monuments other than this stalwart prophet 
of stone. Is there any interpretation to the words; "Id 
that day." applicable to the Pyramid? Singularly enough 
this witness was sealed from the world for twenty-five 
centuries after Isaiah's time, and its mysteries are only 
now becoming dimly visible in the theistic and cosmic 
sense, in this dawn of that prophetic promise of millen- 
ial glories. 

Admitting these peculiarities, is there any construction 
of the language employed which gives topographical evi- 
dence that the Great Pyramid was to be God's Witness? 
Prophecy sits upon the ruins of Babylon, Tyre, Edom and 
Egypt, and from the Euphratean marshes to the sands 
which carnival about Petrea's cliff-palaces — not a frown 
of the Almighty has been wasted. What, then, of this 
"witness?" A thousand years before Christ, Memphis 
stood nearer the seashore, and the Memphite pyramid was 
on the border of the encroaching sands. To-day there is 
a plain stretching out from ancient Egypt into the sea, 


which harmonizes two antithetic phrases in Isaiah's proph- 
ecy: In the midst of Egypt, and yet in the border thereof. 

The meaning of this was a mystery until cleared up by 
one of those Providences which come from indirect agen- 
cies. A United States naval officer, in passing the coast 
of Egypt, noticed that the shore line constituted an arc 
of a circle, the converging radii of which meet at the 
hill of Ghizeh. This idea did not originate in any desire 
to develop Pyramidology. A carefully prepared map 
illustrated the fact very strongly, an imitation of which 
appears on page 151. 

At present, taking the geometrical shape of the valley 
as a guide, the Great Pyramid of Ghizeh is in the center 
of a circle, whose circumference bounds the extremity. 
At the same time it is upon the border thereof. West- 
ward stretch e s the dreary waste of sand. Eastward the 
fertile valley. It is also on the border that separated 
Upper from Lower Egypt. No language could have 
been used by man so appropriately to mark its situation 
— nor could more foolish words be spoken than these, 
providing the Great Pyramid were not referred to. The 
Pyramid could have been built on the banks of the Nile, 
at less expense and without causeways. 

The following extract from Job is doubtless the most 

direct of any that has been appropriated to the Pyramid 

—the Lord answering Job out of the whirlwind: 

"Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without 

knowledge? Gird up now thy loins, like a man, for I 

will demand of thee, and answer thou me, where wast 

thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare 

if thou hast understanding. Who laid the measures 

thereof, if thou knowest? Or who hath stretched the 

line upon it? Whereupon are the foundations* made to 

*Tf the sides of the Pyramid are continued through the earth at the 
same ratio of ten to nine, the intersection of the axis of revolution will 
be at the poles. See Appendix. 


^At*** vVN - — * .fit y 





Fig. 80. Map -with sector of a circle having the Pyramid as a centre. 


sink. [As rendered by Dr. Seiss.] Or who laid the corner 
stone upon it, [Coptic], when the morning stars sang to- 
gether, and all the Sons of God shouted for joy?" 

This is certainly a masterpiece of eloquence and power 
-—yet so simple that a child can understand its majestic 
import. It will be noticed that the description of the 
foundations and the erection of a structure, are separate 
and precede the reference to a corner stone. One stone 
only is spoken of, and that, by Coptic rendering, up m 
the structure. The Coptic version was derived from the 
Septuagint, and at a period when the Pyramid was noth- 
ing that other pyramids were not, — in fact, "some idol- 
ater's tomb." Possibly this also refers to a Draconis and 
Alcyone, at the grand "morning" of the Great Cycle — 
the Pleiadic year! How could the poetic expression of 
the beginning of God's Universe-Year be more lofty and 
sublime than by the words "morning stars;" and the "cor- 
ner-stone" thus becomes intelligible— especially by a far- 
ther study of the expression in other parts of the Bible. 

The birth of Christ was signalled by a star, a-"morning 
star," and throughout the written Word he is spoken of 
as a corner stone, even as a "chief-corner stone." So per- 
tinent are these references, that the missing corner-stone 
of this "stone logos" — in the wilderness — seems to be a 
symbol of the Christ, — who was welcomed with the 
songs of angels, but who has since been crucified and 
removed from earth. 

We would also advise our readers to peruse Zechariah, 
4th chapter, keeping the imagery of the building, the 
headstone, the mountain, and the expression of a "base," 
well in mind. Especially note the expression — "he shall 



















bring forth the headstone thereof with shoutings. Grace, 
Grace nnto it." It is possible, as witnessed by what has 
been said, that the Great Pyramid is the prophetic sym- 
bol of the Church, the Temple, and the Logos, the Cap- 
stone being Jesus Christ, who is slain, whose birth was 
with song, and whose future advent, together with the 
discovery of the missing corner stone will be with shouts 
and songs of joy by God's people. 

David says: "The stone which the builders refused has 
become the headstone of the comer."* In parallel words 
it is said in Acts 4:11, "This is the stone which was set 
at naught by you builders, which has become the head of 
the corner." Read also 1st Peter, 2d chapter, from the 
4th to the 8th verses, and note the distinctness of the 
expression of a "chief -corner stone." Especially the com- 
parison of a Christian sect to a stone temple having a 
chief-corner stone in Christ Jesus, in Eph. 2:20-22. Fol- 
low this with the denunciations in Matthew 21:42-44.f 

We must admit, after a careful consideration of this 
branch of Pyramid study, that the evidence of theistic 
teaching in the Pyramid analogous to the Hebraic theol- 
ogy, and referred to in the Hebrew writings, is more than 
enough to awaken the profoundest investigation of mod- 
ern students. And yet, until the Pyramid presents more 
than fragmentaiy marvels, the connection with the great 
stream of theosophy must be seen as "through a glass 
darkly." That the unveiling of the marvellous structure 
will show that God's will, purpose, and agency is inter- 
twined with its scientific attributes, we have no doubt. 
Such grand design, such depth of research, such intellec- 
tual grandeur, such harmony in execution, such wonder- 

*The Septuaginta say— "the head CORNER stone." We think there are 
philological reasons for compounding the two first words. 

+Also read Jer. xxxii, 20:— "Which hast set signs and wonders in the 
Land of Egypt, even unto this day." 



ful prescience were never united in the "living" rock, 
except God fashioned its "corner-stone." 


In the early days of the republic, when the founders of 
the nation worked out the essentials of a government, 
they established a "seal." On one side was the Eagle, 
with the scutcheons and emblems representing the thir- 
teen states, and various allegorical points we have not 
room to work out. On the reverse was placed a Pyra- 

Pig. 81. Reverse of TJ. S. Seal. There are different styles of this seal 
from the fact that it was never cut. The act simply specified an unfin- 
ished pyramid, with the addenda in the field. 

mid, to represent strength, durability, and correctness of 
form. This was not a very singular choice, although the 
pyramids were then but slightly known. But the direc- 
tions require an unfinished Pyramid. This was a little 
singular. Then they added to it a "Radiant Eye," sig- 
nificant of the Watchcare of God over our people. Inas- 
much as a missing corner stone is now universally recog- 
nized as symbolic of Jesus Christ, this selection of the 

» C 4> M 
c3 c a 


complete design is still more singular. Very few are 
aware of the recently developed relations between proph- 
ecy and United States history. Its discovery, settlement 
by the Puritans, establishment of a seal, our coins, the 
"hope of the world" (Isis) character of our institutions, 
point with more than accidental likeness to the "new 


In English inches the King's Chamber is 412.5 long; 
breadth is 206.2 inches. The silver "dollar of our Fathers" 
weighs 412.5 grains, the half-dollar 206.2 grains, and the 
quarter-dollar 103.03 grains, "which last is an important 
Pyramid number." The dollar was the weight of an 
eastern coin of traditional age, current in Asiatic trade, 
and ours was made to correspond. The dates of this coin 
can probably be traced to the trans-Edomitic commerce. 

The Pyramid height, in sacred cubits, is 232.5. The 
gold eagle weighs 232.2 grains, half eagle 116 grains. 

The diameter of a circle is to the side of a square of 
equal area as 9 to 8 within an "incommensurable fraction." 

Then the proportion 

8:9:: 103.132 : 116.+ 
shows not only that the weights of the quarter-dollar and 
half eagle are proportional, but exhibit a peculiar squar- 
ing-of-the-circle proportion. Any circle having 116.26 

*In illustration : On the 9th of September, 1774, were passed the cele- 
brated "Suffolk Resolutions," carried to Congress by Paul Revere— the 
recognized declaration of principles on which the new era and the nation 
began, with a free conscience, and God on its lips. Historians agree that 
the history of our country began at that time. At the same hour there 
arose over the sea, in the east, a "wonder" in heaven. It was the constel- 
lation Virgo,(Virgin), closely following the Sun, crowned with the 12 stars 
[there were originally only 12 colonies], the Corona Borealis, or "new con- 
stellation;" following Virgo arose the crescented moon. In connection 
read the 1st verse of the 12th of Rev. : "And there appeared a great 
wonder in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under 
her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars." Other remarkable 
historical features add interest to the study. "The 'woman' fled into tho 
wilderness . . on the wings of a great 'Eagle' "—See Bancroft's U. S. 

NOTES. 159 

for a diameter is equal in area to a square having 103.03 
on a side. This latter number is accepted by all Pyramid 
students as the "measuring rod" of the Pyramid, being 
the length of the granite in Antechamber; at the same 
time 116.26 is the entire length of the Antechamber. 
Mark this well! If this coin came to us through the 
changeless numismatics of the east, whose standards are 
Semitic; and the channel of Indian commerce was through 
Edom, (a kingdom of the Esauite troglodytes, descendants 
of "Israel;") and they represent a quadrature proportion 
— where did they get these coins? But mark farther, this 
proportion is not 8 to 9 — nor 16 to 18 — nor the thousand 
other possible proportions! It is the very "odd" propor- 
tion of 116.-}- to 103.03-|-. And in no place on this 
planet is it symbolized except in the Antechamber of the 
Great Pyramid of Egypt, whose cubit, arm, omer, coffer 
and King's chamber afterward appear in Hebrew men- 
suration. Again the diameter of a circle, (360°) in terms 
of seconds, is 41 2.5 -|-, the weight of the said dollar. 
Therefore its circumference is 1,296,000 — which is 1000 
times 1269, the cubic inches in a yard. Thus we see the 
most remarkable fact that not only is the "dollar" decimal, 
historic, mathematical, etc., but it is decimally connected 
with the linear system of the ancients and moderns! 
And a fraction of these discoveries is not evolved. The 
time will soon come when the French scientist and the 
Anglo-Saxon philosopher will discover the practical Isis 
of the world's commerce unveiled in the "Pillar of Wit- 
ness in the midst of Egypt." 


The area of a right section of the Pyramid is to the 
base as 1 is to Pi. 

The English gallon of 231 cubic inches is found mid- 


way between the Pyramid height, in cubits, 232.5, and 
height of King's Chamber in inches, 230.89. — [Latimer]. 

The 35th tier of masonry possesses some curious proper- 
ties. It is so much thicker than the tiers above and below, 
that attention is at once called to it. Its position gives 
the following measurements: From base to 35th tier, 
1162.6 inches. This number is ten times the length of 
the Antechamber. From vertical center to the inclined 
side, or half the base of truncation, 3652.42 inches, or ten 
years, in inch years. The indication is that while the 
50th course gives the cental enumeration, the 35th gives 
the decimal. It has not been sufficiently examined yet. 

The Pyramid thermometric scale is decimal in its 

0° is at the freezing point of water. 
50° " " Earth's mean temperature. 
250° " " boiling point of water. 

1000° " " red heat of iron. 

5000° " " melting of platinum. 

In Job 3:14, the word translated "desolate places," 
(gorbah) should read "lofty sepulchre, mastaba, or pyra- 
mid," {per ami). 

Eminent writers have asserted that correct zodiacs were 
painted on the walls of the most ancient temples. This 
is an error which has repeatedly been corrected. The 
zodiacs were painted under the Roman rule, after the cor- 
rection of the Egyptian Cycle. (See Appendix, under the 
head "Caballah.") 

The Pyramid not only furnishes the best known place 
for the pursuit of the study of physics, in its present 
ragged condition, but was quite absolute when covered 
with smooth, cold marble. The heat rays of the sun 
were reflected unabsorbed, and the desert air found no 
crevises for its scanty moisture. 


It is said that the Pyramid is built upon that spot 
of earth whose meridian line and longitudinal section 
divide the habitable globe into four equal portions. Any 
person can take a map of the hemispheres and see how 
probable this is. It is a relation to ponder over. 

The mean density of the earth is indicated by dividing 
the Coffer capacity, 71,970 inches, by the Coffer weight 
of water, 17,905.5 gallons, = to 5.672. The earth is one 
thousand billion times the weight of the perfect Pyra- 
mid. — (Petrie.) 

The niche in the Queen's Chamber is about 185 in. high. 
185.1 X-PiX 10 = 5813.+. But that 182.62 X lO-i-2 will = 
9131, the base side, (Bonwick) is an error. 182.62 X 100-f- 
2 = 9131. 182.62X2= 365.24, the days in a year. It is 
difficult to ascertain the true height of the niche. 

9131-h365.24=the l-10,000,000th part of the earth's 
polar radius. 

The Great Pyramid may have been an altar, with a 
platform at the top for sacrifice. There is not, however, a 
single feature of the building, or note in its meagre his- 
tory, which points to this conclusion. The inference is 
brought all the way from Mexico and Peru, where large 
mounds were so used. 

As we have suggested before, it may have been a tomb. 

Whatever may be our belief in this connection, its 
remarkable history and grand details of scientific and 
religious import are not modified thereby. The fact of 
the 50 or 60 other pyramids being tombs is of no value 
as evidence. The Great Pyramid was sealed, and at 
least the imitators of the first four — an ignorant host 
who worshipped their domestic animals, and dreamed 
of none of the great secrets within the larger — followed 
the supposed purpose of the majestic pile before them. 


And yet we know not but that one of the chambers 
contained a mummy. 

The evidence is almost a demonstration that the Egyp- 
tians did not build it. Strangers "conquered the country 
without a battle." They were the Semites who sought 
the 30th parallel in ancient and powerful Egypt. 

On the sarcophagus lid, in the Third Pyramid, was an 
invocation to Osiris. This fact has been evidence to the 
Egyptologists that at least the Third Pyramid was con- 
structed by the devotees of the polytheism of the native 
race. It appears to be so, but a critical analysis of the 
fact removes such a conclusion. All theosophists agree 
that at an early time the Egyptian God was one, supreme, 
omniscient ruler, without the semi-mortal attendants and 
accidents. These were introduced, probably, by the mul- 
tiplying priesthood. The hieroglyphic ideations which 
naturally represented supreme intelligence and power 
were the THRONE and the EYE. And these forms are 
the name of the earliest deity the world ever knew — a 
name which gave Os, (a throne, because of stone, and 
later, an oracle because edict, law, and power issued there^ 
from, — still later, a "mouth") and Iris (an eye) to all the 
prominent languages of the world — even to our own. The 
subject belongs to a future work. 

Its theism — distinct from the idolatry of Egypt, and 
emanating from a foreign race, hateful to the Egyptians 
— points directly to what afterwards became Hebraic; but 
at that early epoch was doubtless the great monotheistic 
belief of the Noachian family. Our conclusion, if it be. 
worthy of attention, is that the Great Pyramid has a des- 
tiny intimately connected with future science; in the past, 
a prophecy of changes to come, and in all ages to be a 
"pillar" and a "witness" to the Lord. 


In the consideration of these two smaller and subse- 
quent structures we have been compelled to admit that 
they are "component parts of one great system." Not 
alone from the mathematical relations exhibited, as de- 
veloped by others, but by the conclusion that the Shep- 
herd invaders of Egypt, of Semitic origin, who built the 
Great Pyramid, remained in power for 500 years and con- 
structed the entire system on the Hill of Ghizeh. There 
is no fact better established, amid the general uncertainty, 
than that the kin-successors of Cheops erected the Second 
and Third Pyramids, viz.: Kephren and Mykere. 

We have already suggested that they were children of 
the same impulse, and to be distinguished from the 80 or 
90 other pyramidal structures in the Nile Galley. While 
we believe that the Second and Third enter into the plan 
and figurative expression of the whole, still, in a strict 
sense, they were doubtless imitative to a certain degree. 
The lofty intellect that sought the 30th parallel, con- 
quered the Egyptians "without a battle," and "destroyed 
the Gods," secured their grand object in the erection of 
the Great Pyramid. Knowing the design and mission 
thereof, the successors sought to add tomb-monuments 
which would enlarge upon the physical sciences shrined 
in the first. 

One writer says: "The Egyptians were a supremely 
geometrical people," regardless of beauty or utility. Yes, 
with the "Hamlet of the play, left out." The wander- 



ing Pelasgians, Semitic invaders, Cuthites — whoever they 
were — were a "supremely geometrical people." Karnak 
and Luxor and ruind Cyclopia antedate history too far 
to attribute much wisdom to the race who succeeded to 
their possession, and acquired the astronomy of the Ish- 
maelites. Mr. Agnew states that the causeway was also 
connected with the original design, and possibly linked 
the three Pyramids, mathematically, closely together.* 

Mr. John J. Wild "contends that the Second and Third 
Pyramids exhibit the law of the retrogradation of the 
ascendant node of the equator in the ecliptic." "The 
eighteen years lunar peiiod is obtained by the relation of 
the Gizeh Pyramids." 

Mr. Wild shows that the elevation of the bases of the 
three Pyramids is at such degrees as equals the propor- 
tion between the radius and sinus of 14° 41'37-4- = 33' 2" 
to 8' 5". And this equals "the proportion between the 
radius and sinus of the double of the central angle of a 
polygon which has as many sides as the square of the 
base of the Second Pyramid contains square seconds, viz., 

The minor mathematical relations thus worked out by 
the second and third Pyramids are quite numerous, 
though they nearly all require some element in the Great 
Pyramid to complete. Thus it becomes possible that the 
Cheopian dynasty — (two brothers especially — Suphis and 
SenSuphis) designed the Great, and the lesser were added 
as mathematical satellites. 

The former height of the Second Pyramid was 454 feet 
3 inches; present height about 447 feet, 6 inches. Base 

*This causeway "was in length equal to the circumference of the chief 
circle, or parent of the whole scheme, that of which the First Pyramid 
was radius, [See Figs'. 66 F, 69, and 79.] and of which the square of the 
base of the Second Pyramid was the mscriptible square." 






Si, \ y>\ 

% S \ \ \ «- 

° \ \ \ ~> 


side, ancient, 707 feet 9 inches. (Perring.) These dimen- 
sions are not as accurate as is desirable. 

Belzoni, the Italian traveller discovered the first granite 
stone disguising the entrance to the Second Pyramid, on 
the 28th of February, 1816, and on the 2d of March dis- 
covered the entrance. He found a narrow passage simi- 
lar to that of the First, which descended toward the cen- 
ter for 104 feet, 5 inches, at an angle of 26°. There it 
was "portcullised." But Belzoni was a persevering anti- 
quarian. He raised the large portcullis, and passed 22 
feet 6 inches farther in. Then he dropped down a shaft, 
by means of a rope, 15 feet. Thence at an angle of 25° 
northward and downward, then an ascent which brought 
him to a horizontal passage. On the walls of the pass- 
age were multitudes of"arborizations" of "nitre," some in 
ropes, others resembling an endive leaf, and the fleece of 
a lamb. Lastly a "door" leading into the central cham- 
ber. Here he found a sarcophagus, 8 feet long, 42 inches 
wide, 27 inches deep. 

He removed the lid. There, amid earth and stones, 
were bones which in London were afterwards declared to 
be those of a bull!! — the God Apis himself! This does 
not look as though this Pyramid were monotheistic — but 
fortunately for our faith, the inscriptions on the walls — - 
of which there were many — were Coptic, Arabic, and 
Saracen. One of them read: "The Master Mohammed 
Ahmed, lapicide, has opened them, and the Master Oth- 
man attended this; and the King, Alij Mohammed, at first 
to the closing up."* 

The bones of the Bull, and the earth and stones, were 
doubtless carried there when the bones of the first occu- 

*This has been translated differently, the word "Master" not being 
given. Still the variations are not essential. 


























pant were removed. Bones of the Apisite deities were 
not rare in that section! Diodorus says the priests dis- 
turbed Mycerinus' burial intentions, on account of their 
hatred of him. They possibly put a bull in this coffer — 
or "near it," as one writer says. Other passages were 
found, and other unknown inscriptions. Also another 
portcullis, which had been forcibly removed — leading to a 
probable second outlet. 

It is said that a Cufic* or Cuthite inscription was once 
discovered near the top. 

The ancient height of the Third Pyramid was 261 feet, 
present height 203 feet. Length of base side, 354 feet, 
6 inches. 

The Third Pyramid is comparatively perfect. The cas- 
ing remains — the lower half of granite, and the upper of 
marble. The apocryphal statement that Nitocris was 
buried within is scarcely worthy of notice. It was doubt- 
less built by Menkeres, or Mycerinus. It is called the 
Red Pyramid. Col. Vyse forced an entrance in 1837. 
Angle of passage 26°.-)-. Length of passage 104 feet 
Entrance, as usual, hidden and portcullised, also filled with 
loose stones. An anteroom, 12 by 10 1-2 feet and 7 feet 
high, preceded and was built over a large chamber, 46 
feet 3 inches long, 12 feet 7 inches wide, and 13 feet in 
height. Beneath was a burial room, considerably smaller, 
having what appears to be, and has been described as an 
arch, built nearly a thousand years before it appeared in 
Egyptian architecture. The chamber really has a ridge 
roof of massive rocks, considerably hollowed or rounded 
out on the under side. 

The room had been forced before Col. Vyse entered. 

*Cufic characters are among the most ancient known, among a people 
who were the earliest to write, and whose science pervaded early Egypt 
—the Arabians. 



The coffer weighing three tons was shipped to London, 
but was lost at sea. The "mummy board" is in the British 
Museum. On it is a prayer to Osiris. It is referred to 
on page 162. 

The pyramids of Sakkara are but a short distance south 
of the Ghizeh group. One of them was a large struc- 
ture, but the majority are much inferior in size. They 
are all badly ruined, and this has been taken as evidence 
of a greater age. But examination proves them to have 

Fig. 91. Mastaba at 

Fig-. 92. The 
ridge-roof arch. 

Fig. 93. Burial chamber 
in the Third Pyramid. 

been very poorly constructed, some of them being built of 
brick. There is no evidence of other purpose than to 
place a huge, rough mound over a mummy-chamber, and 
their history marks the decadence of pyramid-building. 
They were followed by the obelisk, the collossus, (like 
the Sphynx, Memnon, etc.), stelae, and temple tomb. 

The extent of our work will not permit of a more 
extended description of these ruins, though extremely 
interesting from an antiquarian standpoint. 

Fig. 94. Teocallis cf Cholula. 



As indicated in the preceding pages there were 
"books," in the ancient days of Egypt. How far back 
they were written is a matter of great doubt. Even those 
which remain to the present time, in fragments, give no 
clue as to authorship. It is said, traditionally, that rela- 
tives of Menes wrote works upon medicine and the arts. 
These statements will not bear scrutiny in the least. 
Menes himself is an imaginary personage — the name may, 
possibly, be an attribute of the common head of the Eu- 
phratean races, 3000 to 3500 B.C., from which Minos, 
Menu, and Manes sprang, and possibly it may be the 
signification of death and chaos. We believe in looking 
at the mythological status practically, and not building 
probabilities on possibilities. Now, so far as the facts 
will warrant, there are no books that extend back to the 
time of the Pyramids of Ghizeh. Still, the Acthoite (see 
p. 43) MS may have originated during the reign of the 
Shepherd invaders. However, they are not Egyptian, 
but from a race cursed by Egyptian priests. The history 
of the books is parallel to the history of the invasion; 
and according to Manetho they appeared during the 6th 
dynasty (Memphian) — the dynasty of his Suphis. 

Our private opinion, formed from slight acquaintance 
with Egyptian literature — and from an examination of a 
portion of the "Egyptian Book of the Dead" in our pos- 



u on, is that these writings originated in Edoru! And 
also that the science accredited to the Egyptian race is 
thoroughly Arabic and Petra?an. and hence — from, the 
Shemitic source direct. It is utterly impossible for us to 
on Prof. Owen's long epoch of time preceding a 
mythical Menes. when he stands isolated from all the 
historical facts, and in unison only with the traditions 
which we shall soon refer. 

The works of "Hermes*' are often referred to. In fact 
a wide system of speculative historical and theistic phil 
hy has sprung up. known as Hermetic-. It lo"ks like 
jumping to a conclusion, but fidelity to the great dm 
giving unbiassed deductions forces us to say that we 
believe there never was a "Hermes. " The name was 
given, in a date subsequent to Mo>es (1300 B.C.), to a 
philosopher named Trismegistus. But long anterior to 
the period of T.. his philosophy was evolved and his 
title (Hermes) enrolled in Greek theotechny as Mercury. 
What is known of Hermetic writings falls wonderfully 
below the standard of Edomitic philosophy. In fact the 
title '-Hermes*' was adjective. 

But there is another phase to the development of Her- 
nieties, more baneful to the general reader. Writers in 
the latest present may i-sue mammoth works, with cum- 
brous historical sophism, all requiring assumed conditions 

d upon a shadow, thus inoculating a numerous s 
with error. Such statements as that of Baldwin's i S 
p. 49.) will furnish several volumes on Rosierucian mys- 
teries. But the most painful instance of this character 
is in the two burse volumes of Madame Blavat^kv's. enti- 
tied "Isis Unveiled" an exceedingly ponderous work. 

In the first pi g - is given as a -ettled fact, a statement 
which is really necessary for the span of her philosophy. 


All of 30,000 years are taken for the evolution of Egyp- 
tian, Iranian and Mongol civilizations. No words ran 
express the pain with which the historian pass* - Buch 
premises to weighty conclusions. 

The fact is. that no history of any race carries as hack 
of 3500 years B.C., excepting the Bible.* Manetho is quo- 
tcd. But nearly 30,000 years of Manetho's chronology is 
taken up by "Gods and Heroes." and the reign of the 
dvnasties extends only 5000 years. But Manetho lived in 
tin* 3d century only before Christ, when the Jewish his* 
torical and prophetic literature had totally ceased; when 
Edom and Phoenicia were forgotten; when Egypt glow- 
ered upon a past ten centuries old, and whose priesthood 
lived on the fabulous — when mythology was dominant. 
And with all this. Manetho's works live only in fragments 
copied into the pages of Mythological historians. W 
than this, Manetho made so many errors in the dates now 
known by the monuments, that his statements are utterly 

As to the Babylonian epochs, Berosus alone is a bare 
shadow of an authority for an extra-remote antiquity. 
And of his 36,000 years the first dynasty "of Gods and 
Heroes"* require 34,nso!! Still there is not a shadow even, 
of authority or genealogy for any of this mythism! 

As for Iranian history, the verdict of Prof. Max Mid- 
ler is of more weight than ours. He embraces the Vedic 
chronology under four heads, (the Chandas, Mantra, Brah- 
mana and Sutra periods,) beginning only 1200 B.C. and 
closing 200 B.C. Thus the beginning of this Sanskrit 

*And there is no Bible Chronolosry antecedent to 2000 B.C. The Septu- 
agint givimr such different epochs from the Jewish. (4th century, from 
which the Vulgate and our version are derived —the singular paucity of 
the original alphabet and loss of Patriarchal MSS— throws the chronology 
of the Bible antecedent to Abraham in great doubt. On the whole the 
Septuagint version is worthy of more credence than the Jewish of the 
4th century. 


antiquity was quite parallel to the world-wide renown of 
Solomon, and was unborn in the time of Moses. 

As for Chinese antiquity we may safely defy any evi- 
dence of tribal relations even preceding 2200 B.C. — at 
which time the universal Menu had been dead a thousand 
years — and the flood was. a tradition of 10 centuries (Sept- 
uagint date). But to add to the confusion of the Cabal- 
lists, the work on "The reign of the four Kings," by 
Laoutze, the Preceptor of Confutze or Confucius, con- 
tains a poem describing the triune qualities of the Deity, 
each of the three qualities beginning with foreign Jewish 
syllables, "Yeh"— "Heh"— "Weh"- our Jehovah! 

The fact that flake-flint implements are found among 
the iron-wrought tombs of Egypt may also tend to shake 
confidence in the elaborate Stone-age hypotheses. But it 
is a subject which will receive attention in another 

The history of the Isis of Egypt is remarkable in clas- 
sical technics, and in theosophy — not from any evolu- 
tion of an ancient caballism it may have in-volved, but 
because the breaking up of language brought Isis (eesis), 
out of Jesus (Yesus) and Esha (Eve, woman), the mother 
"whose seed should crush the serpent." It is probable 
that the research and apparently misdirected energy of 
the author of Isis Unveiled will assist in the future devel- 
opment of that theistic doctrine which it was its purpose 
to weaken. 

There are a variety of theories regarding the evolution 
of Cosmos, which get their inspiration from the ancient 
works of Egypt, the most remakable of which is that all 
nature is a geometrical arcana. That morphology and 
history can be marked out witli compass and pencil, and 
that the Great Pyramid is the Caballah to the scheme. 



It is the opinion of many antiquarians that the typical 
form of tomb which gave rise to the pyramidal system 
was the Mastaba, or Cyclopean elevations of rock, like 
that at Meydoum, (see cut). The mastaba is referred to 
an epoch from 2500 to 3500 B.C., dates which include the 
apocryphal dynasties of Egypt and the demi-Gods of 
Assyria. All that can be said is that there are no mounds 
in existence which furnish the slightest evidence of such 
an age — either hieroglyphic, monumental or technically 
historic — any more than there was of the Great Pyra- 
mid before science unravelled its astronomical data, and 
research discovered its hidden paint-marks in the interior. 
The Mastaba has been a type of tomb only as it repre- 
sents a burial instinct in humanity, against which crema- 
tion is an education. 

Had the drift and alluvium covered the rock substrat 
in Egypt as it did in Illinois, the Mastaba would have 
been a mound ; had the American basin been covered 
with rock and sand, the tumulus and mound would have 
been rock-tombs, as in Central America. In the sense 
that teocalli, tumuli, mastabas, steloe and pyramids cover 
the dead, they are alike; but they are too often contem- 
poraneous to be developmentary types of each other. 

They represent the universal desire to place a head- 
stone over the dead. 


The Mexican pyramidal structures are attributed to the 
Aztecs, the supersedents of the powerful and civilized 
Tezcucans. Those in Peru are less distinctive in charac- 
ter, and less numerous than in Central America. They 
are not, at present, imposing structures, with the excep- 


tion of that in Cholula dedicated to the "God of the Air," 
Quetzalcoatl. These mounds or high altars were in the 
later years of the conquering Aztecs, used for sacrifice 
of human victims in religious rites. The mystery of 
their original purpose is a sealed book. They are "pyr- 
amidal" it may be supposed, because the shape of mound 
is the most natural for elevation. Sometimes the "temple" 
was within the mound — sometimes upon the summit — ■ 
occasionally both. They were known by the name of 
"Teocalli." That of Cholula was truly a magnificent 
monument, though in no respect resembling the Egyptian 
Pyramid, either in "size, construction, or apparent pur- 
pose." Torquemada estimates their number as at least 
40,000 in the ancient Mexican realm. A great many of 
them were circular mounds, and quite all were of a more 
or less terraced form. The Mexicans were peculiarly a 
fire reverencing people, though not strictly fire-worship- 

The Teocallis of Cholula is built of adobe, stone, earth 
and cement — of four sides irregularly facing the cardinal 
points — terraced in a broken manner, and surmounted by 
a temple on a platform about one acre in extent. It is 
160 feet in height, and about 1,400 feet on a side, by irreg- 
ular measurement, thus covering quite 45 acres. It is 
rather a succession of mounds, apparently built around 
a natural hill. The present temple is a Spanish structure, 
but burial places exist in the sides, much the same as 
have been found in the sides of other mounts and rocks 
throughout the kingdom, as well as throughout the 
ancient Hellic and Etrurian necropoli, and among the Jain 
and Buddhist relics of India, or the rock cut caves of 
Upper Egypt. Fig. 94 is not correct — too lofty for base. 

There are traditions that connect Quetzalcotl, to whom 
the Ciiolula Teocalli was erected, with Noah. 


As a curiosity we would offer the following regarding 
the Mexican races. One of the earliest were the Maya, 
who had a peculiar hieroglyphic literature. There has 
also recently been sent us for translation the photograph 
of a very singular head-stone to an Indian mummy un- 
earthed in southeastern Ohio. It remained long without 
any clue as to the nature of the hieroglyphs. The first 
feature noticed was a triangular triple character, a very 
close resemblance to the entrance hieroglyph on the Pyr- 
amid. We have since determined that the origin of the 
characters is the same as that of the Maya literature; and 
in view of the recent discoveries among the descendants 
of the ancient migrators, in Peru, of numerous Semitic 
roots in the older dialects, the student can arrive at some 
startling conclusions. 


In general, the Reviewers have been very kind to the 
first edition, for it was exceedingly full of typographical 
flaws. The great mind-universal seems not unwilling to 
soberly investigate the Pyramid facts, as an antiquarian 
problem, and let it stand or fall thereby. 

After a weary march in a tangled wilderness, we confess 
(as an Appendix allows of considerable familiarity with 
the reader), that recognition, even bordering on flattery, 
is tainted with sweetness. 

But we call attention to another review, which would 
not be noticed were we not anxious lest the sheet should 
reach our English friends, who naturally know but little 
of the city in which the journal is printed. Chicago is 
a place of great prominence, half a million population, 
and much promise, it citizens being far better informed 
than its Tribune. It is the only journal in the city of 
unlimited "capacity." Chicago is not a pioneer city, nor 
warped by wildwood ignorance nor Indian complacency. 
Its newspapers are the largest in the world; its schools of 
excellent character. We mention these items because the 
interesting excerpts are from the Chicago Tribune, an im- 
mense sheet, of considerable influence. 


The following verbatim propositions constitute nearly 
the entire review. For astounding intellectual calisthen- 
ics it excels everything. We commend its perusal to our 
journalistic friends "who laugh." 

The study of the Pyramids has effected important discoveries. The 
Great Pyramid stands at the Apex of the Delta of the Hill [What is that? 
— P.], in the centre of the habitable globe, etc. This curious fact is not 
mentioned in Mr. Pish's work. 

The Great Pyramid does not stand at the -'apex of the 
Delta (of the hill !)" It is not in a delta of any kind, but 
on a slope of the Libyan chain. We occupied fully three 
pages on this interesting topic, excluding the Tribune's 
blunders. (Pages 128, 129, 130, and five distinct refer- 
ences elsewhere.) 

2 And, as to the mathematical feature to which Dr. Pish gives so much 
space— the quadrature of the circle — but little benefit has ever been de- 
rived from the time and labor bestowed upon this problem. In fact the 
French Academy of Science and the Royal Society of London decided 
long ago not to examine any paper pertaining to this subject. 

In which the reviewer's ignorance would arouse the 
jealousy of an Afghan. Both societies have recently dis- 
cussed both the Pyramid and the Pi proportion. The 
Book gives not one word regarding the theories of circle 
quadrature, but remarks sympathetically of "the labori- 
ous but unhappy souls who are figuring on the quadrature 
of the circle, etc." The Pi proportions of the Pyramid, 
over 50 in number, received "so much" as two pages, and 
he is yet unborn who can write a work on the Pyramid 
and leave 3.14159-f- out of it. We are afraid this genius 
does not apprehend the Binomial Theorem. 

3. Nor does he allude to the existence of numerous pyramids in other 
portions of the world, 

For the significant reason that we know of none. If 
the genius will exercise a cosmopolitan spirit and men- 
tion a few, his contribution to science will be warmly 
received. Truncated pentagons mounted in recession are 
not pyramids. Hence, Xochicalco may resemble Suku, 
but not Ghizeh. There are a few modern copies in Italy. 

—and particularly those in Mexico, so like the Egyptian in SIZE, FORM, 

This is "unconscious cerebration." The loftiest teo- 
callis in Mexico is 00 feet lower than the ordinary wooden 


spire across from our window. Three such teocalli upor; 
one another would look up to see JEgypta's ancient sum- 
mit. They are of different form, not being pyramids. 
Their "apparent'' purpose is well enough understood to 
have been for human sacrifice. Even as late as the fif- 
teenth century the horrible smell of human flesh spread 
far around them. The sides of the pyramids were smooth. 
There were no means of ascent. 

4. Dr. Fish has never visited the Pyramids. His theories and conclu- 
sions are merely based on examination of the opinions of others. 

It is very confidently said. Let him think so. But as 
we have no theories to defend, it matters little. Dr. Seiss 
wrote an able work on the subject, yet all his data is from 
others. Dr. John Taylor surprised the world with Pyr- 
amid wonders, never having seen it. The great Pyramid 
savant, Prof. Smyth, wrote the "Inheritance" before his 
remarkable visit to the "pillar of witness." Mr. Bonwick 
disclaims any personal work. The last place on the face 
of the globe to study pyramid science, with less than a 
national treasury, is at the hill of Ghizeh, and we have 
yet to know of any pyramid science evolved by a tourist, 
sui generis. 

5. Prof. Smyth holds that the design, origin and destiny of the Great 
Pyramid are theistic, 

Be moderate — our work is copyrighted. 

—that it never was intended for a royal tomb, but was rather an astro- 
nomical depository or workshop. 

To labor with the hands, and to burn the torch until it 
singes the grey beard of morning; to bend under the bur- 
den of five solid volumes, to weary in a labor of love and 
sacrifice — is nothing. But after wrestling with a mighty 
past, and a present pregnant with destiny, to be thus 
thrown by a mountebank, and into an "astronomical 
workshop!" Professor, you have written in vain — unless 
this reviewer have a ganglionic weakness. We had sup- 
posed your life-work was to prove the Pyramid not an 
astronomical workshop! 

6. Dr. Grant agrees with Prof. Smyth in his belief that the sarcophagus 
was not a coffin, because it had no cover. Henry Field— a personal ob- 
server—asserts it as a singular fact that the sarcophagus had no cover. 
But the writer from whom Dr. Fish derives his opinions, says there was 
a cover, and the marks are still evident where were the lintels— etc. 

What royal sarcasm were it not monumental ignorance. 
The "writer from whom," etc., was Prof. Smyth! And 


Col. Vyse, and Perring, (and Caliph Mamoun's fabrica- 
tor), men whose lives are identified with the Pyramid for 
all time — whose fortunes and homes were sacrificed in 
the struggle for lisdit! Men with whom no instrument 
was too costly, or the highest artificial illumination too 
laborious! Then to see calcium lights and Playfairs and 
camera chased up and down those mysterious galleries 
by a Boston tourist and a Chicago reporter with a tallow 
dip ! And the same Prof, referred to wrote 18 pages to 
prove that the coffer had a lid. Jfirabile dicta/ Blind ! 
He will be happy, as Scotland's Astronomer Royal, to 
hear that a man by the name of Grant*agrees with him. 

7. But Dr. Van Uhym goes further, and declares that the massive sar- 
cophagus contained a wooden coffin in which was the richly decorated 
mummy of a king - . And that this mummy was carried away when the 
Caliph Mamoun, in the beginning of the 9th century, etc. [See p. 65.] 

This is not an absolute fabrication. The tourist men- 
tioned probably had not seen the several hundred other 
Arabian and Moslem traditions, so gave some credence 
to this. All writers are probably agreed that it may be 
true. Very few assert that the Pyramid was not a tomb. 

8. —But whieh does not contain anything- new, or add to what was 
known before. It is only a compilation, and as such m it superior to others. 

There being no other "compilations" or compend of 
more than a pamphlet form, this rub is very unkind. Dr. 
Seiss's work is a series of grand, non-technical lectures. 
Mr. Bonwick's a blank collection of approximate ideas 
and measurements of pyramids and mounds. Our work 
is the only illustrated — technical — precise compend in the 
market. It is a clear field. The book is therefore the 
worst one in existence. 

In reply to a letter, Dr. A. K. Frain, an Iowa anti- 
quarian, responded as follows: 

* * We are either ignorant of literature on the subject or else 
it is peculiarly distinct from any work on Egyptian topics. Its analysis 
of the history, within 30 or 40 pages, is the best I have seen. The inclusion 
of the 4th dynasty (Cheops) with the Shepherd Kings, and as conquerors 
of Tiniaus, is in conflict with other writers, as also the consecutive reigns 
of Cheopian and Salatian monarchs. Among thoroughly new ideas are: 
Your views of Philitis; the discovery of the first hieroglyph, and its sub- 
sequent translation; the forgery of the "vegetable" inscription given by 
Herodotus, an item that is of the utmost importance; the duplication 
of the cube, and farther development of some mathematical points— all 

*The reflection is not upon Dr. Grant, whose labors are appreciated, but 
upon the reviewer who is ignorant of Prof. Smyth's "Life and Work.*' 


constituting" a work thoroughly distinct and original. * The reviewer 
evidently did not read the book, and is somewhat ignorant of the sub- 
ject. It is only the prominence of the paper that gives it importance. 

This review is thus noticed at length, to show how 
weighty topics may be misrepresented by powerful jour- 
nals. It is altogether likely that the gentleman in the 
easy chair remarked to his chance friend, as the book was 
taken from the dummy, "Here Augustus, review this 
Egyptian ruin for us before you go. There's a mass of 
such truck coming out." In about fifteen minutes the 
i's are all dotted, the t's crossed, and Augustus goes out 
and takes the sun. Meantime the "other man" reaps this 
"fruit," for his years of toil and anxiety. 

But the reviewers do not all make the task so slight, 
nor call "Augustus" to their aid. 



Abaris, 35. 

Abraham, 27, 33, 43, 48, 63. 

Abydos, (This) 22, 23. 33. 

Academicians, 27 

Acthoes, 43. 

Age of P. 10. 

Air holes, 96. 

Alcyone, 126. 

Alexandria, 22. 

AlMamoun. 65. 

Alluvium, 27. 

Alphabets, 24. 

Altar, 156. 

Amun Ra 26. 

Amunmai Thori, 33. 

" " " 11,33. 

Amunoph I, 36 ■ 
Amunoph II, 37. 
Amun Nitocris, 37. 
Analysis, 13. 
Angle of Entrance, 82. 
Angle of Side, 75 
Antechamber, 90 
Apachnas, 34. 
Apex, 77. 
Apis, 43. 
Arabs, 67. 
Art, 25. 
Ark, 148. 

Ascending Passage, 82. 
Asseth, 34. 
Astronomy, 13, 125. 
Auritae, 41. 

Azimuth Trenches, i08. 
Bactria, 10. 
Bahara, 21. 
Baldwin, 49. 
Beon, 33. 
Bheels, 35. 
Bible, 62, 64, 147. 
Birth of Christ, 117. 
Bonwick, 35, 62. 
Boss, 92, 111. 
Books, 42 43. 
British Sci. Ass'n. 16. 
Builders of Pyramid, 54. 
Burning Bush, 119. 
Cairo, 52. 
Caviglia, 68, 83. 
Canaanites, 55, 
Cartouches, 55. 
Casing Stones, 74, 75, 76. 
Castes, 39. 
Casey, Mr. 120. 
Chabas, M 43, 56. 
Chebros Amosis, 34, 35, 36. 
Chemmis, 29. 

Cheops, 28, 29, 30, 41, 56, to 8-88. 
Chephren, 30. 

Chronology, 23, 37, 38, 48, 113 to 125. 
Closure of Pyramid. 64. 
Chufu, 29. 

Circle, Quadrature of 138 
Coffer, 97, 135. 
Coincidence, 16, 109, 129- 
Coins, 158 
Caballiym, 172 

Uonder, 54. 

Construction, 59. 

Construction Chambers. 99, 100. 

Coptic Books, 62. 

Corner Sockets, 73. 

Corner Stone, 77, 155 

Crucifixion, 120. 

Cubits, 116, 136, 137. 

Davison, 68. 

Damascus, 9. 

Darius II, 22. 

Date of Erection, 82, 120. 

Deluge, 54. 

Diameter of Earth 127. 

Density, 161 

Diospolis, 22. 

Diorite, 108. 

Draconis, 117, 126. 

Earth measures. 46, 127, 131. 

Edom, 24, 25, 63. 

Egypt, location 21. 

End of the age, 121. 

Entrance, 78, 81. 

Entrance Passage, 79. 

Length of 
Eratosthenes, 22, 37, 45, 54. 
Erection, date of 82, 120. 
Exodus, 119. 
Facing, 64. 
Fallen Stone, 66. 
Flood, 23, 48, 125. 
French Standard, 133, 134. 
Ghizeh, 52. 
Glidden, 55, 69. 
Gorbah, 155. 
Greaves, 68. 
Grand Gallery, 84. 

" Height of 89. 
Granite Leaf, 92, 110. 
Granite Elevation, 95, 122* 
Greek Letters, 25, 
Height, 73. 
Hebrew Letters, 26. 
Heroditus, 22, 27, 29, 30, 31, 54, 59. 
Heracleopolis, 22-43. 
Hieroglyphs, 22, 23, 37, 81. 
Hipparchus, 17. 
Historical, 13, 51, 
History of P. 21. 

" " Egypt 51. 
Hindus, 29; 36. 
Holy of Holies, 148. 
Horizontal Passage, 103. 
Humidity, 144. 
Hycsos, 30. 33, 55, 56, 63. * 
Ibin Abd Alkokm, 61. 
Iran, 10. 
Ideations, 24. 
Imitations, 11. 
Impend, 90, 
Inch years, 114, 116. 
Incrustation, 105. 
Inscriptions, 61. 
Isaiah, 148. 
Isis Unveiled, 15*i 174 



Jacob ,37. 
Janias, 34. 
Jeremiah, 63. 
Jewish, Race, 66. 
Joseph. 33, 37. 
Josephus*. 55. 
Job, 63 156. 
Julius Africanus, i 
Karnak, 33. 
Kenrick, 49. 
King's Chamber, 95. 
Latitude, 46, 131. 
Leap Year, 146. 
Life and Work, 95, 100. 
Lindsay, 57. 
Logos, 14, 64, 147, 153. 
Luxor, 33- 

Manetho, 22, 28, 29-31. 
Mastaba, 175 
Measures 13, 133. 
Melchizedek, 43, 
Memnon List, ': 
Memphis, 22, 2? 
Mencheres, 31 . 
Menes, 25. 
Menu, 26. 
Meshophra, 33. 
Meskora, 33 
Mesphra-Thothosis, 36. 
Metrical System, 133. 
Mencophra, 49. 
Mezrites, 41. 
Minos, 26. 
Monotheism, 43. 
Months, 45, 147. 
Morphology, 110. 
Motive, 109. 
Moses, 119. 
Name of Egypt, 47, 
Native, Kings, 36. 
Noubkori, 33. 
Object of the work, 10. 
Observatory, 156. 
Orientation, 74, 132. 
Osiris, 24. 
Osirtisen I, 32. 

44 H, 33. 

" in, 33. 
Pali, 35, 55i 
Palestine, 125. 
Para n as, 36. 

Parts and Proportions, 73. 
Pentateuch, 10. 
Pole Star, 117. 
Perozenius, 54. 
Petrea, 24. 
Phoenicia, 24, 33, 35. 
Philitis, 30, 56, 
Philistines, 56. 
Pillar, 148. 
Pi Proportion, 155. 
Pontiff Kings, 31, 
Portcullis, 66, 84. 
Processional Cycle, 114. 
Quadrature of the Circle, 

Queen's Chamber, 103. 

Ramps, 87, 88, 103, 110. 

Ramp Holes, 89 

Romans, 65. 74, 83. 

Salatian Dynasty, 36, 56. 

Salt, 105. 

Said, 22, 

Salatis, 33. 

Sarcophagus, 97. 

Scemiophra, 33, 

Seal. 15 ^. 

Sec and Third Pyr. 163 

Seiss, Dr." 29. 

Sensuphis, 30, 31. 

Shofo, 29, 59. 

Shepherds, 30, 33, 57. 

Sound Characters, 24. 

Science, 44 

Shemmo, 49. 

Sharpe, 57. 

Smyth, Prof. 16, 69. 

Sphynx, 78 

Strabo, 23. 

Step, 89. 

Stone Logos, 147. 

Sun God, 26. 

Syncellus, 23. 

Suphis, 28, 

Sun's Distance, 126. 

Subterranean Chamber, 82, 83. 

Symbolisms, 113. 

Taylor John, 61 69. 

Temperature, 144. 

Tentyra, 28. 

Test Case, 18. 

Thebaid (air) 22. 

Thebes, 22, 27, 31, 33. 

Thermometric Scale, 160. 

Thinites, 22, 28. 

Thirty-fifth tier, 155. 

This, 22, 28. 

Timaus, 29, 30. 

Tiers. 77. 

Time Divisions, 145. 

Tomb Theory, 70, 88, 98, 109, 161. 

Troglodytes, 24. 

Trenches, 108. 

Turin Tablet, 23. 

U. S. Seal, 166. 

Value of Evidence, 16. 

Ventilators, 96. 

Vostani, 22. 

Vyse, Col. H. 68, 73, 74. 

Weights, 73. 

Wilson, Mr. 36. 

Thos. 36. 

Wilkinson, Mr. 48 

Week, 47, 145. 

Well, 83, 87. 

Witness, 148. 

Xois, 22. 

Years, 145 

Yoingees, 29, 36, 66. 

Zero, 155. 

14 138-144 Zincke, 49. 
14, MB 144. Zodiacgj 155< 


028 102 248 9 

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